Robust Linear Models

In [1]:
%matplotlib inline

from __future__ import print_function
import numpy as np
import statsmodels.api as sm
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from statsmodels.sandbox.regression.predstd import wls_prediction_std

Estimation

Load data:

In [2]:
data = sm.datasets.stackloss.load()
data.exog = sm.add_constant(data.exog)
/home/travis/build/statsmodels/statsmodels/statsmodels/datasets/utils.py:344: FutureWarning: load will return datasets containing pandas DataFrames and Series in the Future.  To suppress this message, specify as_pandas=False
  FutureWarning)

Huber's T norm with the (default) median absolute deviation scaling

In [3]:
huber_t = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.HuberT())
hub_results = huber_t.fit()
print(hub_results.params)
print(hub_results.bse)
print(hub_results.summary(yname='y',
            xname=['var_%d' % i for i in range(len(hub_results.params))]))
[-41.02649835   0.82938433   0.92606597  -0.12784672]
[9.79189854 0.11100521 0.30293016 0.12864961]
                    Robust linear Model Regression Results                    
==============================================================================
Dep. Variable:                      y   No. Observations:                   21
Model:                            RLM   Df Residuals:                       17
Method:                          IRLS   Df Model:                            3
Norm:                          HuberT                                         
Scale Est.:                       mad                                         
Cov Type:                          H1                                         
Date:                Thu, 29 Nov 2018                                         
Time:                        00:12:59                                         
No. Iterations:                    19                                         
==============================================================================
                 coef    std err          z      P>|z|      [0.025      0.975]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
var_0        -41.0265      9.792     -4.190      0.000     -60.218     -21.835
var_1          0.8294      0.111      7.472      0.000       0.612       1.047
var_2          0.9261      0.303      3.057      0.002       0.332       1.520
var_3         -0.1278      0.129     -0.994      0.320      -0.380       0.124
==============================================================================

If the model instance has been used for another fit with different fit
parameters, then the fit options might not be the correct ones anymore .

Huber's T norm with 'H2' covariance matrix

In [4]:
hub_results2 = huber_t.fit(cov="H2")
print(hub_results2.params)
print(hub_results2.bse)
[-41.02649835   0.82938433   0.92606597  -0.12784672]
[9.08950419 0.11945975 0.32235497 0.11796313]

Andrew's Wave norm with Huber's Proposal 2 scaling and 'H3' covariance matrix

In [5]:
andrew_mod = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.AndrewWave())
andrew_results = andrew_mod.fit(scale_est=sm.robust.scale.HuberScale(), cov="H3")
print('Parameters: ', andrew_results.params)
Parameters:  [-40.8817957    0.79276138   1.04857556  -0.13360865]

See help(sm.RLM.fit) for more options and module sm.robust.scale for scale options

Comparing OLS and RLM

Artificial data with outliers:

In [6]:
nsample = 50
x1 = np.linspace(0, 20, nsample)
X = np.column_stack((x1, (x1-5)**2))
X = sm.add_constant(X)
sig = 0.3   # smaller error variance makes OLS<->RLM contrast bigger
beta = [5, 0.5, -0.0]
y_true2 = np.dot(X, beta)
y2 = y_true2 + sig*1. * np.random.normal(size=nsample)
y2[[39,41,43,45,48]] -= 5   # add some outliers (10% of nsample)

Example 1: quadratic function with linear truth

Note that the quadratic term in OLS regression will capture outlier effects.

In [7]:
res = sm.OLS(y2, X).fit()
print(res.params)
print(res.bse)
print(res.predict())
[ 5.13109146  0.5059445  -0.01198518]
[0.461573   0.07126064 0.00630547]
[ 4.83146209  5.08489243  5.33432938  5.57977294  5.8212231   6.05867987
  6.29214324  6.52161322  6.7470898   6.96857299  7.18606278  7.39955918
  7.60906219  7.8145718   8.01608802  8.21361084  8.40714027  8.5966763
  8.78221894  8.96376819  9.14132404  9.31488649  9.48445555  9.65003122
  9.81161349  9.96920237 10.12279785 10.27239994 10.41800864 10.55962394
 10.69724584 10.83087436 10.96050947 11.0861512  11.20779952 11.32545446
 11.439116   11.54878414 11.65445889 11.75614025 11.85382821 11.94752278
 12.03722395 12.12293173 12.20464611 12.2823671  12.3560947  12.4258289
 12.4915697  12.55331712]

Estimate RLM:

In [8]:
resrlm = sm.RLM(y2, X).fit()
print(resrlm.params)
print(resrlm.bse)
[ 5.05986683e+00  4.92731650e-01 -1.40872038e-03]
[0.13808088 0.02131782 0.0018863 ]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

In [9]:
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12,8))
ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
ax.plot(x1, y2, 'o',label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, 'b-', label="True")
prstd, iv_l, iv_u = wls_prediction_std(res)
ax.plot(x1, res.fittedvalues, 'r-', label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, resrlm.fittedvalues, 'g.-', label="RLM")
ax.legend(loc="best")
Out[9]:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x2aadab37f390>

Example 2: linear function with linear truth

Fit a new OLS model using only the linear term and the constant:

In [10]:
X2 = X[:,[0,1]] 
res2 = sm.OLS(y2, X2).fit()
print(res2.params)
print(res2.bse)
[5.6141674  0.38609275]
[0.39565046 0.03409084]

Estimate RLM:

In [11]:
resrlm2 = sm.RLM(y2, X2).fit()
print(resrlm2.params)
print(resrlm2.bse)
[5.10557214 0.48019988]
[0.11663652 0.01004987]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

In [12]:
prstd, iv_l, iv_u = wls_prediction_std(res2)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8,6))
ax.plot(x1, y2, 'o', label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, 'b-', label="True")
ax.plot(x1, res2.fittedvalues, 'r-', label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, resrlm2.fittedvalues, 'g.-', label="RLM")
legend = ax.legend(loc="best")