RecursiveLSResults.impulse_responses(steps=1, impulse=0, orthogonalized=False, cumulative=False, **kwargs)

Impulse response function


steps : int, optional

The number of steps for which impulse responses are calculated. Default is 1. Note that the initial impulse is not counted as a step, so if steps=1, the output will have 2 entries.

impulse : int or array_like

If an integer, the state innovation to pulse; must be between 0 and k_posdef-1. Alternatively, a custom impulse vector may be provided; must be shaped k_posdef x 1.

orthogonalized : boolean, optional

Whether or not to perform impulse using orthogonalized innovations. Note that this will also affect custum impulse vectors. Default is False.

cumulative : boolean, optional

Whether or not to return cumulative impulse responses. Default is False.


If the model is time-varying and steps is greater than the number of observations, any of the state space representation matrices that are time-varying must have updated values provided for the out-of-sample steps. For example, if design is a time-varying component, nobs is 10, and steps is 15, a (k_endog x k_states x 5) matrix must be provided with the new design matrix values.


impulse_responses : array

Responses for each endogenous variable due to the impulse given by the impulse argument. A (steps + 1 x k_endog) array.


Intercepts in the measurement and state equation are ignored when calculating impulse responses.