Source code for statsmodels.tsa.holtwinters.results

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from scipy.special import inv_boxcox
from scipy.stats import (
    _distn_infrastructure,
    boxcox,
    rv_continuous,
    rv_discrete,
)

from statsmodels.base.data import PandasData
from statsmodels.base.model import Results
from statsmodels.base.wrapper import (
    ResultsWrapper,
    populate_wrapper,
    union_dicts,
)


[docs]class HoltWintersResults(Results): """ Results from fitting Exponential Smoothing models. Parameters ---------- model : ExponentialSmoothing instance The fitted model instance. params : dict All the parameters for the Exponential Smoothing model. sse : float The sum of squared errors. aic : float The Akaike information criterion. aicc : float AIC with a correction for finite sample sizes. bic : float The Bayesian information criterion. optimized : bool Flag indicating whether the model parameters were optimized to fit the data. level : ndarray An array of the levels values that make up the fitted values. trend : ndarray An array of the trend values that make up the fitted values. season : ndarray An array of the seasonal values that make up the fitted values. params_formatted : pd.DataFrame DataFrame containing all parameters, their short names and a flag indicating whether the parameter's value was optimized to fit the data. resid : ndarray An array of the residuals of the fittedvalues and actual values. k : int The k parameter used to remove the bias in AIC, BIC etc. fittedvalues : ndarray An array of the fitted values. Fitted by the Exponential Smoothing model. fittedfcast : ndarray An array of both the fitted values and forecast values. fcastvalues : ndarray An array of the forecast values forecast by the Exponential Smoothing model. mle_retvals : {None, scipy.optimize.optimize.OptimizeResult} Optimization results if the parameters were optimized to fit the data. """ def __init__( self, model, params, sse, aic, aicc, bic, optimized, level, trend, season, params_formatted, resid, k, fittedvalues, fittedfcast, fcastvalues, mle_retvals=None, ): self.data = model.data super().__init__(model, params) self._model = model self._sse = sse self._aic = aic self._aicc = aicc self._bic = bic self._optimized = optimized self._level = level self._trend = trend self._season = season self._params_formatted = params_formatted self._fittedvalues = fittedvalues self._fittedfcast = fittedfcast self._fcastvalues = fcastvalues self._resid = resid self._k = k self._mle_retvals = mle_retvals @property def aic(self): """ The Akaike information criterion. """ return self._aic @property def aicc(self): """ AIC with a correction for finite sample sizes. """ return self._aicc @property def bic(self): """ The Bayesian information criterion. """ return self._bic @property def sse(self): """ The sum of squared errors between the data and the fittted value. """ return self._sse @property def model(self): """ The model used to produce the results instance. """ return self._model @model.setter def model(self, value): self._model = value @property def level(self): """ An array of the levels values that make up the fitted values. """ return self._level @property def optimized(self): """ Flag indicating if model parameters were optimized to fit the data. """ return self._optimized @property def trend(self): """ An array of the trend values that make up the fitted values. """ return self._trend @property def season(self): """ An array of the seasonal values that make up the fitted values. """ return self._season @property def params_formatted(self): """ DataFrame containing all parameters Contains short names and a flag indicating whether the parameter's value was optimized to fit the data. """ return self._params_formatted @property def fittedvalues(self): """ An array of the fitted values """ return self._fittedvalues @property def fittedfcast(self): """ An array of both the fitted values and forecast values. """ return self._fittedfcast @property def fcastvalues(self): """ An array of the forecast values """ return self._fcastvalues @property def resid(self): """ An array of the residuals of the fittedvalues and actual values. """ return self._resid @property def k(self): """ The k parameter used to remove the bias in AIC, BIC etc. """ return self._k @property def mle_retvals(self): """ Optimization results if the parameters were optimized to fit the data. """ return self._mle_retvals @mle_retvals.setter def mle_retvals(self, value): self._mle_retvals = value
[docs] def predict(self, start=None, end=None): """ In-sample prediction and out-of-sample forecasting Parameters ---------- start : int, str, or datetime, optional Zero-indexed observation number at which to start forecasting, ie., the first forecast is start. Can also be a date string to parse or a datetime type. Default is the the zeroth observation. end : int, str, or datetime, optional Zero-indexed observation number at which to end forecasting, ie., the first forecast is start. Can also be a date string to parse or a datetime type. However, if the dates index does not have a fixed frequency, end must be an integer index if you want out of sample prediction. Default is the last observation in the sample. Returns ------- forecast : ndarray Array of out of sample forecasts. """ return self.model.predict(self.params, start, end)
[docs] def forecast(self, steps=1): """ Out-of-sample forecasts Parameters ---------- steps : int The number of out of sample forecasts from the end of the sample. Returns ------- forecast : ndarray Array of out of sample forecasts """ try: freq = getattr(self.model._index, "freq", 1) if not isinstance(freq, int) and isinstance( self.model._index, (pd.DatetimeIndex, pd.PeriodIndex) ): start = self.model._index[-1] + freq end = self.model._index[-1] + steps * freq else: start = self.model._index.shape[0] end = start + steps - 1 return self.model.predict(self.params, start=start, end=end) except AttributeError: # May occur when the index does not have a freq return self.model._predict(h=steps, **self.params).fcastvalues
[docs] def summary(self): """ Summarize the fitted Model Returns ------- smry : Summary instance This holds the summary table and text, which can be printed or converted to various output formats. See Also -------- statsmodels.iolib.summary.Summary """ from statsmodels.iolib.summary import Summary from statsmodels.iolib.table import SimpleTable model = self.model title = model.__class__.__name__ + " Model Results" dep_variable = "endog" orig_endog = self.model.data.orig_endog if isinstance(orig_endog, pd.DataFrame): dep_variable = orig_endog.columns[0] elif isinstance(orig_endog, pd.Series): dep_variable = orig_endog.name seasonal_periods = ( None if self.model.seasonal is None else self.model.seasonal_periods ) lookup = { "add": "Additive", "additive": "Additive", "mul": "Multiplicative", "multiplicative": "Multiplicative", None: "None", } transform = self.params["use_boxcox"] box_cox_transform = True if transform else False box_cox_coeff = ( transform if isinstance(transform, str) else self.params["lamda"] ) if isinstance(box_cox_coeff, float): box_cox_coeff = "{:>10.5f}".format(box_cox_coeff) top_left = [ ("Dep. Variable:", [dep_variable]), ("Model:", [model.__class__.__name__]), ("Optimized:", [str(np.any(self.optimized))]), ("Trend:", [lookup[self.model.trend]]), ("Seasonal:", [lookup[self.model.seasonal]]), ("Seasonal Periods:", [str(seasonal_periods)]), ("Box-Cox:", [str(box_cox_transform)]), ("Box-Cox Coeff.:", [str(box_cox_coeff)]), ] top_right = [ ("No. Observations:", [str(len(self.model.endog))]), ("SSE", ["{:5.3f}".format(self.sse)]), ("AIC", ["{:5.3f}".format(self.aic)]), ("BIC", ["{:5.3f}".format(self.bic)]), ("AICC", ["{:5.3f}".format(self.aicc)]), ("Date:", None), ("Time:", None), ] smry = Summary() smry.add_table_2cols( self, gleft=top_left, gright=top_right, title=title ) formatted = self.params_formatted # type: pd.DataFrame def _fmt(x): abs_x = np.abs(x) scale = 1 if np.isnan(x): return f"{str(x):>20}" if abs_x != 0: scale = int(np.log10(abs_x)) if scale > 4 or scale < -3: return "{:>20.5g}".format(x) dec = min(7 - scale, 7) fmt = "{{:>20.{0}f}}".format(dec) return fmt.format(x) tab = [] for _, vals in formatted.iterrows(): tab.append( [ _fmt(vals.iloc[1]), "{0:>20}".format(vals.iloc[0]), "{0:>20}".format(str(bool(vals.iloc[2]))), ] ) params_table = SimpleTable( tab, headers=["coeff", "code", "optimized"], title="", stubs=list(formatted.index), ) smry.tables.append(params_table) return smry
[docs] def simulate( self, nsimulations, anchor=None, repetitions=1, error="add", random_errors=None, random_state=None, ): r""" Random simulations using the state space formulation. Parameters ---------- nsimulations : int The number of simulation steps. anchor : int, str, or datetime, optional First period for simulation. The simulation will be conditional on all existing datapoints prior to the `anchor`. Type depends on the index of the given `endog` in the model. Two special cases are the strings 'start' and 'end'. `start` refers to beginning the simulation at the first period of the sample, and `end` refers to beginning the simulation at the first period after the sample. Integer values can run from 0 to `nobs`, or can be negative to apply negative indexing. Finally, if a date/time index was provided to the model, then this argument can be a date string to parse or a datetime type. Default is 'end'. repetitions : int, optional Number of simulated paths to generate. Default is 1 simulated path. error : {"add", "mul", "additive", "multiplicative"}, optional Error model for state space formulation. Default is ``"add"``. random_errors : optional Specifies how the random errors should be obtained. Can be one of the following: * ``None``: Random normally distributed values with variance estimated from the fit errors drawn from numpy's standard RNG (can be seeded with the `random_state` argument). This is the default option. * A distribution function from ``scipy.stats``, e.g. ``scipy.stats.norm``: Fits the distribution function to the fit errors and draws from the fitted distribution. Note the difference between ``scipy.stats.norm`` and ``scipy.stats.norm()``, the latter one is a frozen distribution function. * A frozen distribution function from ``scipy.stats``, e.g. ``scipy.stats.norm(scale=2)``: Draws from the frozen distribution function. * A ``np.ndarray`` with shape (`nsimulations`, `repetitions`): Uses the given values as random errors. * ``"bootstrap"``: Samples the random errors from the fit errors. random_state : int or np.random.RandomState, optional A seed for the random number generator or a ``np.random.RandomState`` object. Only used if `random_errors` is ``None``. Default is ``None``. Returns ------- sim : pd.Series, pd.DataFrame or np.ndarray An ``np.ndarray``, ``pd.Series``, or ``pd.DataFrame`` of simulated values. If the original data was a ``pd.Series`` or ``pd.DataFrame``, `sim` will be a ``pd.Series`` if `repetitions` is 1, and a ``pd.DataFrame`` of shape (`nsimulations`, `repetitions`) else. Otherwise, if `repetitions` is 1, a ``np.ndarray`` of shape (`nsimulations`,) is returned, and if `repetitions` is not 1 a ``np.ndarray`` of shape (`nsimulations`, `repetitions`) is returned. Notes ----- The simulation is based on the state space model of the Holt-Winter's methods. The state space model assumes that the true value at time :math:`t` is randomly distributed around the prediction value. If using the additive error model, this means: .. math:: y_t &= \hat{y}_{t|t-1} + e_t\\ e_t &\sim \mathcal{N}(0, \sigma^2) Using the multiplicative error model: .. math:: y_t &= \hat{y}_{t|t-1} \cdot (1 + e_t)\\ e_t &\sim \mathcal{N}(0, \sigma^2) Inserting these equations into the smoothing equation formulation leads to the state space equations. The notation used here follows [1]_. Additionally, .. math:: B_t &= b_{t-1} \circ_d \phi\\ L_t &= l_{t-1} \circ_b B_t\\ S_t &= s_{t-m}\\ Y_t &= L_t \circ_s S_t, where :math:`\circ_d` is the operation linking trend and damping parameter (multiplication if the trend is additive, power if the trend is multiplicative), :math:`\circ_b` is the operation linking level and trend (addition if the trend is additive, multiplication if the trend is multiplicative), and :math:`\circ_s` is the operation linking seasonality to the rest. The state space equations can then be formulated as .. math:: y_t &= Y_t + \eta \cdot e_t\\ l_t &= L_t + \alpha \cdot (M_e \cdot L_t + \kappa_l) \cdot e_t\\ b_t &= B_t + \beta \cdot (M_e \cdot B_t + \kappa_b) \cdot e_t\\ s_t &= S_t + \gamma \cdot (M_e \cdot S_t + \kappa_s) \cdot e_t\\ with .. math:: \eta &= \begin{cases} Y_t\quad\text{if error is multiplicative}\\ 1\quad\text{else} \end{cases}\\ M_e &= \begin{cases} 1\quad\text{if error is multiplicative}\\ 0\quad\text{else} \end{cases}\\ and, when using the additive error model, .. math:: \kappa_l &= \begin{cases} \frac{1}{S_t}\quad \text{if seasonality is multiplicative}\\ 1\quad\text{else} \end{cases}\\ \kappa_b &= \begin{cases} \frac{\kappa_l}{l_{t-1}}\quad \text{if trend is multiplicative}\\ \kappa_l\quad\text{else} \end{cases}\\ \kappa_s &= \begin{cases} \frac{1}{L_t}\quad\text{if seasonality is multiplicative}\\ 1\quad\text{else} \end{cases} When using the multiplicative error model .. math:: \kappa_l &= \begin{cases} 0\quad \text{if seasonality is multiplicative}\\ S_t\quad\text{else} \end{cases}\\ \kappa_b &= \begin{cases} \frac{\kappa_l}{l_{t-1}}\quad \text{if trend is multiplicative}\\ \kappa_l + l_{t-1}\quad\text{else} \end{cases}\\ \kappa_s &= \begin{cases} 0\quad\text{if seasonality is multiplicative}\\ L_t\quad\text{else} \end{cases} References ---------- .. [1] Hyndman, R.J., & Athanasopoulos, G. (2018) *Forecasting: principles and practice*, 2nd edition, OTexts: Melbourne, Australia. OTexts.com/fpp2. Accessed on February 28th 2020. """ # check inputs if error in ["additive", "multiplicative"]: error = {"additive": "add", "multiplicative": "mul"}[error] if error not in ["add", "mul"]: raise ValueError("error must be 'add' or 'mul'!") # Get the starting location if anchor is None or anchor == "end": start_idx = self.model.nobs elif anchor == "start": start_idx = 0 else: start_idx, _, _ = self.model._get_index_loc(anchor) if isinstance(start_idx, slice): start_idx = start_idx.start if start_idx < 0: start_idx += self.model.nobs if start_idx > self.model.nobs: raise ValueError("Cannot anchor simulation outside of the sample.") # get Holt-Winters settings and parameters trend = self.model.trend damped = self.model.damped_trend seasonal = self.model.seasonal use_boxcox = self.params["use_boxcox"] lamda = self.params["lamda"] alpha = self.params["smoothing_level"] beta = self.params["smoothing_trend"] gamma = self.params["smoothing_seasonal"] phi = self.params["damping_trend"] # if model has no seasonal component, use 1 as period length m = max(self.model.seasonal_periods, 1) n_params = ( 2 + 2 * self.model.has_trend + (m + 1) * self.model.has_seasonal + damped ) mul_seasonal = seasonal == "mul" mul_trend = trend == "mul" mul_error = error == "mul" # define trend, damping and seasonality operations if mul_trend: op_b = np.multiply op_d = np.power neutral_b = 1 else: op_b = np.add op_d = np.multiply neutral_b = 0 if mul_seasonal: op_s = np.multiply neutral_s = 1 else: op_s = np.add neutral_s = 0 # set initial values level = self.level _trend = self.trend season = self.season # (notation as in https://otexts.com/fpp2/ets.html) y = np.empty((nsimulations, repetitions)) # lvl instead of l because of E741 lvl = np.empty((nsimulations + 1, repetitions)) b = np.empty((nsimulations + 1, repetitions)) s = np.empty((nsimulations + m, repetitions)) # the following uses python's index wrapping if start_idx == 0: lvl[-1, :] = self.params["initial_level"] b[-1, :] = self.params["initial_trend"] else: lvl[-1, :] = level[start_idx - 1] b[-1, :] = _trend[start_idx - 1] if 0 <= start_idx and start_idx <= m: initial_seasons = self.params["initial_seasons"] _s = np.concatenate( (initial_seasons[start_idx:], season[:start_idx]) ) s[-m:, :] = np.tile(_s, (repetitions, 1)).T else: s[-m:, :] = np.tile( season[start_idx - m : start_idx], (repetitions, 1) ).T # set neutral values for unused features if trend is None: b[:, :] = neutral_b phi = 1 beta = 0 if seasonal is None: s[:, :] = neutral_s gamma = 0 if not damped: phi = 1 # calculate residuals for error covariance estimation if use_boxcox: fitted = boxcox(self.fittedvalues, lamda) else: fitted = self.fittedvalues if error == "add": resid = self.model._y - fitted else: resid = (self.model._y - fitted) / fitted sigma = np.sqrt(np.sum(resid ** 2) / (len(resid) - n_params)) # get random error eps if isinstance(random_errors, np.ndarray): if random_errors.shape != (nsimulations, repetitions): raise ValueError( "If random_errors is an ndarray, it must have shape " "(nsimulations, repetitions)" ) eps = random_errors elif random_errors == "bootstrap": eps = np.random.choice( resid, size=(nsimulations, repetitions), replace=True ) elif random_errors is None: if random_state is None: eps = np.random.randn(nsimulations, repetitions) * sigma elif isinstance(random_state, int): rng = np.random.RandomState(random_state) eps = rng.randn(nsimulations, repetitions) * sigma elif isinstance(random_state, np.random.RandomState): eps = random_state.randn(nsimulations, repetitions) * sigma else: raise ValueError( "Argument random_state must be None, an integer, " "or an instance of np.random.RandomState" ) elif isinstance(random_errors, (rv_continuous, rv_discrete)): params = random_errors.fit(resid) eps = random_errors.rvs(*params, size=(nsimulations, repetitions)) elif isinstance(random_errors, _distn_infrastructure.rv_frozen): eps = random_errors.rvs(size=(nsimulations, repetitions)) else: raise ValueError("Argument random_errors has unexpected value!") for t in range(nsimulations): b0 = op_d(b[t - 1, :], phi) l0 = op_b(lvl[t - 1, :], b0) s0 = s[t - m, :] y0 = op_s(l0, s0) if error == "add": eta = 1 kappa_l = 1 / s0 if mul_seasonal else 1 kappa_b = kappa_l / lvl[t - 1, :] if mul_trend else kappa_l kappa_s = 1 / l0 if mul_seasonal else 1 else: eta = y0 kappa_l = 0 if mul_seasonal else s0 kappa_b = ( kappa_l / lvl[t - 1, :] if mul_trend else kappa_l + lvl[t - 1, :] ) kappa_s = 0 if mul_seasonal else l0 y[t, :] = y0 + eta * eps[t, :] lvl[t, :] = l0 + alpha * (mul_error * l0 + kappa_l) * eps[t, :] b[t, :] = b0 + beta * (mul_error * b0 + kappa_b) * eps[t, :] s[t, :] = s0 + gamma * (mul_error * s0 + kappa_s) * eps[t, :] if use_boxcox: y = inv_boxcox(y, lamda) sim = np.atleast_1d(np.squeeze(y)) if y.shape[0] == 1 and y.size > 1: sim = sim[None, :] # Wrap data / squeeze where appropriate if not isinstance(self.model.data, PandasData): return sim _, _, _, index = self.model._get_prediction_index( start_idx, start_idx + nsimulations - 1 ) if repetitions == 1: sim = pd.Series(sim, index=index, name=self.model.endog_names) else: sim = pd.DataFrame(sim, index=index) return sim
class HoltWintersResultsWrapper(ResultsWrapper): _attrs = { "fittedvalues": "rows", "level": "rows", "resid": "rows", "season": "rows", "trend": "rows", "slope": "rows", } _wrap_attrs = union_dicts(ResultsWrapper._wrap_attrs, _attrs) _methods = {"predict": "dates", "forecast": "dates"} _wrap_methods = union_dicts(ResultsWrapper._wrap_methods, _methods) populate_wrapper(HoltWintersResultsWrapper, HoltWintersResults)