Robust Linear Models

[1]:
%matplotlib inline
[2]:
import numpy as np
import statsmodels.api as sm
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from statsmodels.sandbox.regression.predstd import wls_prediction_std

Estimation

Load data:

[3]:
data = sm.datasets.stackloss.load(as_pandas=False)
data.exog = sm.add_constant(data.exog)

Huber’s T norm with the (default) median absolute deviation scaling

[4]:
huber_t = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.HuberT())
hub_results = huber_t.fit()
print(hub_results.params)
print(hub_results.bse)
print(hub_results.summary(yname='y',
            xname=['var_%d' % i for i in range(len(hub_results.params))]))
[-41.02649835   0.82938433   0.92606597  -0.12784672]
[9.79189854 0.11100521 0.30293016 0.12864961]
                    Robust linear Model Regression Results
==============================================================================
Dep. Variable:                      y   No. Observations:                   21
Model:                            RLM   Df Residuals:                       17
Method:                          IRLS   Df Model:                            3
Norm:                          HuberT
Scale Est.:                       mad
Cov Type:                          H1
Date:                Fri, 13 Mar 2020
Time:                        14:00:33
No. Iterations:                    19
==============================================================================
                 coef    std err          z      P>|z|      [0.025      0.975]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
var_0        -41.0265      9.792     -4.190      0.000     -60.218     -21.835
var_1          0.8294      0.111      7.472      0.000       0.612       1.047
var_2          0.9261      0.303      3.057      0.002       0.332       1.520
var_3         -0.1278      0.129     -0.994      0.320      -0.380       0.124
==============================================================================

If the model instance has been used for another fit with different fit parameters, then the fit options might not be the correct ones anymore .

Huber’s T norm with ‘H2’ covariance matrix

[5]:
hub_results2 = huber_t.fit(cov="H2")
print(hub_results2.params)
print(hub_results2.bse)
[-41.02649835   0.82938433   0.92606597  -0.12784672]
[9.08950419 0.11945975 0.32235497 0.11796313]

Andrew’s Wave norm with Huber’s Proposal 2 scaling and ‘H3’ covariance matrix

[6]:
andrew_mod = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.AndrewWave())
andrew_results = andrew_mod.fit(scale_est=sm.robust.scale.HuberScale(), cov="H3")
print('Parameters: ', andrew_results.params)
Parameters:  [-40.8817957    0.79276138   1.04857556  -0.13360865]

See help(sm.RLM.fit) for more options and module sm.robust.scale for scale options

Comparing OLS and RLM

Artificial data with outliers:

[7]:
nsample = 50
x1 = np.linspace(0, 20, nsample)
X = np.column_stack((x1, (x1-5)**2))
X = sm.add_constant(X)
sig = 0.3   # smaller error variance makes OLS<->RLM contrast bigger
beta = [5, 0.5, -0.0]
y_true2 = np.dot(X, beta)
y2 = y_true2 + sig*1. * np.random.normal(size=nsample)
y2[[39,41,43,45,48]] -= 5   # add some outliers (10% of nsample)

Example 1: quadratic function with linear truth

Note that the quadratic term in OLS regression will capture outlier effects.

[8]:
res = sm.OLS(y2, X).fit()
print(res.params)
print(res.bse)
print(res.predict())
[ 5.0233368   0.53400727 -0.01379409]
[0.47060083 0.07265442 0.00642879]
[ 4.67848467  4.95045116  5.21782153  5.48059578  5.73877393  5.99235596
  6.24134188  6.48573168  6.72552537  6.96072295  7.19132441  7.41732976
  7.638739    7.85555213  8.06776914  8.27539003  8.47841482  8.67684349
  8.87067605  9.05991249  9.24455282  9.42459704  9.60004514  9.77089713
  9.93715301 10.09881278 10.25587643 10.40834396 10.55621539 10.6994907
 10.8381699  10.97225298 11.10173995 11.22663081 11.34692555 11.46262418
 11.5737267  11.6802331  11.78214339 11.87945757 11.97217563 12.06029758
 12.14382342 12.22275315 12.29708676 12.36682425 12.43196564 12.49251091
 12.54846006 12.59981311]

Estimate RLM:

[9]:
resrlm = sm.RLM(y2, X).fit()
print(resrlm.params)
print(resrlm.bse)
[ 4.96553433e+00  5.12235518e-01 -2.01901469e-03]
[0.13142607 0.02029041 0.00179539]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

[10]:
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12,8))
ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
ax.plot(x1, y2, 'o',label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, 'b-', label="True")
prstd, iv_l, iv_u = wls_prediction_std(res)
ax.plot(x1, res.fittedvalues, 'r-', label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, resrlm.fittedvalues, 'g.-', label="RLM")
ax.legend(loc="best")
[10]:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7fe614481e50>
../../../_images/examples_notebooks_generated_robust_models_0_18_1.png

Example 2: linear function with linear truth

Fit a new OLS model using only the linear term and the constant:

[11]:
X2 = X[:,[0,1]]
res2 = sm.OLS(y2, X2).fit()
print(res2.params)
print(res2.bse)
[5.57932289 0.39606642]
[0.40731905 0.03509626]

Estimate RLM:

[12]:
resrlm2 = sm.RLM(y2, X2).fit()
print(resrlm2.params)
print(resrlm2.bse)
[5.01239059 0.49699148]
[0.10087384 0.0086917 ]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

[13]:
prstd, iv_l, iv_u = wls_prediction_std(res2)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8,6))
ax.plot(x1, y2, 'o', label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, 'b-', label="True")
ax.plot(x1, res2.fittedvalues, 'r-', label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, resrlm2.fittedvalues, 'g.-', label="RLM")
legend = ax.legend(loc="best")
../../../_images/examples_notebooks_generated_robust_models_0_24_0.png