Robust Linear Models

[1]:
%matplotlib inline
[2]:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import statsmodels.api as sm

Estimation

Load data:

[3]:
data = sm.datasets.stackloss.load()
data.exog = sm.add_constant(data.exog)

Huber’s T norm with the (default) median absolute deviation scaling

[4]:
huber_t = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.HuberT())
hub_results = huber_t.fit()
print(hub_results.params)
print(hub_results.bse)
print(
    hub_results.summary(
        yname="y", xname=["var_%d" % i for i in range(len(hub_results.params))]
    )
)
const       -41.026498
AIRFLOW       0.829384
WATERTEMP     0.926066
ACIDCONC     -0.127847
dtype: float64
const        9.791899
AIRFLOW      0.111005
WATERTEMP    0.302930
ACIDCONC     0.128650
dtype: float64
                    Robust linear Model Regression Results
==============================================================================
Dep. Variable:                      y   No. Observations:                   21
Model:                            RLM   Df Residuals:                       17
Method:                          IRLS   Df Model:                            3
Norm:                          HuberT
Scale Est.:                       mad
Cov Type:                          H1
Date:                Sun, 26 Sep 2021
Time:                        19:50:28
No. Iterations:                    19
==============================================================================
                 coef    std err          z      P>|z|      [0.025      0.975]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
var_0        -41.0265      9.792     -4.190      0.000     -60.218     -21.835
var_1          0.8294      0.111      7.472      0.000       0.612       1.047
var_2          0.9261      0.303      3.057      0.002       0.332       1.520
var_3         -0.1278      0.129     -0.994      0.320      -0.380       0.124
==============================================================================

If the model instance has been used for another fit with different fit parameters, then the fit options might not be the correct ones anymore .

Huber’s T norm with ‘H2’ covariance matrix

[5]:
hub_results2 = huber_t.fit(cov="H2")
print(hub_results2.params)
print(hub_results2.bse)
const       -41.026498
AIRFLOW       0.829384
WATERTEMP     0.926066
ACIDCONC     -0.127847
dtype: float64
const        9.089504
AIRFLOW      0.119460
WATERTEMP    0.322355
ACIDCONC     0.117963
dtype: float64

Andrew’s Wave norm with Huber’s Proposal 2 scaling and ‘H3’ covariance matrix

[6]:
andrew_mod = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.AndrewWave())
andrew_results = andrew_mod.fit(scale_est=sm.robust.scale.HuberScale(), cov="H3")
print("Parameters: ", andrew_results.params)
Parameters:  const       -40.881796
AIRFLOW       0.792761
WATERTEMP     1.048576
ACIDCONC     -0.133609
dtype: float64

See help(sm.RLM.fit) for more options and module sm.robust.scale for scale options

Comparing OLS and RLM

Artificial data with outliers:

[7]:
nsample = 50
x1 = np.linspace(0, 20, nsample)
X = np.column_stack((x1, (x1 - 5) ** 2))
X = sm.add_constant(X)
sig = 0.3  # smaller error variance makes OLS<->RLM contrast bigger
beta = [5, 0.5, -0.0]
y_true2 = np.dot(X, beta)
y2 = y_true2 + sig * 1.0 * np.random.normal(size=nsample)
y2[[39, 41, 43, 45, 48]] -= 5  # add some outliers (10% of nsample)

Example 1: quadratic function with linear truth

Note that the quadratic term in OLS regression will capture outlier effects.

[8]:
res = sm.OLS(y2, X).fit()
print(res.params)
print(res.bse)
print(res.predict())
[ 4.87136188  0.56398383 -0.01680033]
[0.45070507 0.06958278 0.006157  ]
[ 4.45135362  4.74732499  5.03769859  5.3224744   5.60165244  5.8752327
  6.14321519  6.40559989  6.66238682  6.91357597  7.15916734  7.39916094
  7.63355675  7.86235479  8.08555505  8.30315754  8.51516224  8.72156917
  8.92237832  9.1175897   9.30720329  9.49121911  9.66963715  9.84245741
 10.00967989 10.1713046  10.32733153 10.47776068 10.62259205 10.76182565
 10.89546147 11.02349951 11.14593977 11.26278225 11.37402696 11.47967389
 11.57972304 11.67417442 11.76302801 11.84628383 11.92394187 11.99600213
 12.06246462 12.12332933 12.17859626 12.22826541 12.27233678 12.31081038
 12.3436862  12.37096424]

Estimate RLM:

[9]:
resrlm = sm.RLM(y2, X).fit()
print(resrlm.params)
print(resrlm.bse)
[ 4.79030595  0.55020753 -0.00629529]
[0.1328558  0.02051114 0.00181492]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

[10]:
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12, 8))
ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
ax.plot(x1, y2, "o", label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, "b-", label="True")
pred_ols = res.get_prediction()
iv_l = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_lower"]
iv_u = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_upper"]

ax.plot(x1, res.fittedvalues, "r-", label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, resrlm.fittedvalues, "g.-", label="RLM")
ax.legend(loc="best")
[10]:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7f47f3a6f0d0>
../../../_images/examples_notebooks_generated_robust_models_0_18_1.png

Example 2: linear function with linear truth

Fit a new OLS model using only the linear term and the constant:

[11]:
X2 = X[:, [0, 1]]
res2 = sm.OLS(y2, X2).fit()
print(res2.params)
print(res2.bse)
[5.54851806 0.39598053]
[0.40069543 0.03452554]

Estimate RLM:

[12]:
resrlm2 = sm.RLM(y2, X2).fit()
print(resrlm2.params)
print(resrlm2.bse)
[5.06862651 0.48872222]
[0.1162342  0.01001521]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

[13]:
pred_ols = res2.get_prediction()
iv_l = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_lower"]
iv_u = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_upper"]

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8, 6))
ax.plot(x1, y2, "o", label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, "b-", label="True")
ax.plot(x1, res2.fittedvalues, "r-", label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, resrlm2.fittedvalues, "g.-", label="RLM")
legend = ax.legend(loc="best")
../../../_images/examples_notebooks_generated_robust_models_0_24_0.png