Robust Linear Models

[1]:
%matplotlib inline
[2]:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import statsmodels.api as sm

Estimation

Load data:

[3]:
data = sm.datasets.stackloss.load()
data.exog = sm.add_constant(data.exog)

Huber’s T norm with the (default) median absolute deviation scaling

[4]:
huber_t = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.HuberT())
hub_results = huber_t.fit()
print(hub_results.params)
print(hub_results.bse)
print(
    hub_results.summary(
        yname="y", xname=["var_%d" % i for i in range(len(hub_results.params))]
    )
)
const       -41.026498
AIRFLOW       0.829384
WATERTEMP     0.926066
ACIDCONC     -0.127847
dtype: float64
const        9.791899
AIRFLOW      0.111005
WATERTEMP    0.302930
ACIDCONC     0.128650
dtype: float64
                    Robust linear Model Regression Results
==============================================================================
Dep. Variable:                      y   No. Observations:                   21
Model:                            RLM   Df Residuals:                       17
Method:                          IRLS   Df Model:                            3
Norm:                          HuberT
Scale Est.:                       mad
Cov Type:                          H1
Date:                Thu, 01 Dec 2022
Time:                        18:26:30
No. Iterations:                    19
==============================================================================
                 coef    std err          z      P>|z|      [0.025      0.975]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
var_0        -41.0265      9.792     -4.190      0.000     -60.218     -21.835
var_1          0.8294      0.111      7.472      0.000       0.612       1.047
var_2          0.9261      0.303      3.057      0.002       0.332       1.520
var_3         -0.1278      0.129     -0.994      0.320      -0.380       0.124
==============================================================================

If the model instance has been used for another fit with different fit parameters, then the fit options might not be the correct ones anymore .

Huber’s T norm with ‘H2’ covariance matrix

[5]:
hub_results2 = huber_t.fit(cov="H2")
print(hub_results2.params)
print(hub_results2.bse)
const       -41.026498
AIRFLOW       0.829384
WATERTEMP     0.926066
ACIDCONC     -0.127847
dtype: float64
const        9.089504
AIRFLOW      0.119460
WATERTEMP    0.322355
ACIDCONC     0.117963
dtype: float64

Andrew’s Wave norm with Huber’s Proposal 2 scaling and ‘H3’ covariance matrix

[6]:
andrew_mod = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.AndrewWave())
andrew_results = andrew_mod.fit(scale_est=sm.robust.scale.HuberScale(), cov="H3")
print("Parameters: ", andrew_results.params)
Parameters:  const       -40.881796
AIRFLOW       0.792761
WATERTEMP     1.048576
ACIDCONC     -0.133609
dtype: float64

See help(sm.RLM.fit) for more options and module sm.robust.scale for scale options

Comparing OLS and RLM

Artificial data with outliers:

[7]:
nsample = 50
x1 = np.linspace(0, 20, nsample)
X = np.column_stack((x1, (x1 - 5) ** 2))
X = sm.add_constant(X)
sig = 0.3  # smaller error variance makes OLS<->RLM contrast bigger
beta = [5, 0.5, -0.0]
y_true2 = np.dot(X, beta)
y2 = y_true2 + sig * 1.0 * np.random.normal(size=nsample)
y2[[39, 41, 43, 45, 48]] -= 5  # add some outliers (10% of nsample)

Example 1: quadratic function with linear truth

Note that the quadratic term in OLS regression will capture outlier effects.

[8]:
res = sm.OLS(y2, X).fit()
print(res.params)
print(res.bse)
print(res.predict())
[ 4.94100226  0.54236837 -0.01436865]
[0.45594589 0.07039189 0.0062286 ]
[ 4.58178612  4.85941472  5.13225576  5.40030926  5.66357519  5.92205358
  6.17574441  6.42464769  6.66876341  6.90809158  7.1426322   7.37238526
  7.59735077  7.81752872  8.03291912  8.24352197  8.44933726  8.650365
  8.84660519  9.03805782  9.2247229   9.40660042  9.5836904   9.75599281
  9.92350768 10.08623499 10.24417474 10.39732694 10.54569159 10.68926869
 10.82805823 10.96206022 11.09127465 11.21570153 11.33534086 11.45019263
 11.56025685 11.66553351 11.76602262 11.86172418 11.95263818 12.03876463
 12.12010353 12.19665487 12.26841866 12.3353949  12.39758358 12.4549847
 12.50759828 12.5554243 ]

Estimate RLM:

[9]:
resrlm = sm.RLM(y2, X).fit()
print(resrlm.params)
print(resrlm.bse)
[ 4.85796839e+00  5.28854567e-01 -3.85501400e-03]
[0.15732619 0.02428904 0.00214921]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

[10]:
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12, 8))
ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
ax.plot(x1, y2, "o", label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, "b-", label="True")
pred_ols = res.get_prediction()
iv_l = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_lower"]
iv_u = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_upper"]

ax.plot(x1, res.fittedvalues, "r-", label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, resrlm.fittedvalues, "g.-", label="RLM")
ax.legend(loc="best")
[10]:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7f401f940b20>
../../../_images/examples_notebooks_generated_robust_models_0_18_1.png

Example 2: linear function with linear truth

Fit a new OLS model using only the linear term and the constant:

[11]:
X2 = X[:, [0, 1]]
res2 = sm.OLS(y2, X2).fit()
print(res2.params)
print(res2.bse)
[5.52014665 0.39868191]
[0.39736994 0.034239  ]

Estimate RLM:

[12]:
resrlm2 = sm.RLM(y2, X2).fit()
print(resrlm2.params)
print(resrlm2.bse)
[5.00954027 0.49156123]
[0.12785308 0.01101634]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

[13]:
pred_ols = res2.get_prediction()
iv_l = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_lower"]
iv_u = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_upper"]

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8, 6))
ax.plot(x1, y2, "o", label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, "b-", label="True")
ax.plot(x1, res2.fittedvalues, "r-", label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, resrlm2.fittedvalues, "g.-", label="RLM")
legend = ax.legend(loc="best")
../../../_images/examples_notebooks_generated_robust_models_0_24_0.png