Robust Linear Models

[1]:
%matplotlib inline
[2]:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import statsmodels.api as sm

Estimation

Load data:

[3]:
data = sm.datasets.stackloss.load()
data.exog = sm.add_constant(data.exog)

Huber’s T norm with the (default) median absolute deviation scaling

[4]:
huber_t = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.HuberT())
hub_results = huber_t.fit()
print(hub_results.params)
print(hub_results.bse)
print(
    hub_results.summary(
        yname="y", xname=["var_%d" % i for i in range(len(hub_results.params))]
    )
)
const       -41.026498
AIRFLOW       0.829384
WATERTEMP     0.926066
ACIDCONC     -0.127847
dtype: float64
const        9.791899
AIRFLOW      0.111005
WATERTEMP    0.302930
ACIDCONC     0.128650
dtype: float64
                    Robust linear Model Regression Results
==============================================================================
Dep. Variable:                      y   No. Observations:                   21
Model:                            RLM   Df Residuals:                       17
Method:                          IRLS   Df Model:                            3
Norm:                          HuberT
Scale Est.:                       mad
Cov Type:                          H1
Date:                Wed, 29 Jun 2022
Time:                        20:43:33
No. Iterations:                    19
==============================================================================
                 coef    std err          z      P>|z|      [0.025      0.975]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
var_0        -41.0265      9.792     -4.190      0.000     -60.218     -21.835
var_1          0.8294      0.111      7.472      0.000       0.612       1.047
var_2          0.9261      0.303      3.057      0.002       0.332       1.520
var_3         -0.1278      0.129     -0.994      0.320      -0.380       0.124
==============================================================================

If the model instance has been used for another fit with different fit parameters, then the fit options might not be the correct ones anymore .

Huber’s T norm with ‘H2’ covariance matrix

[5]:
hub_results2 = huber_t.fit(cov="H2")
print(hub_results2.params)
print(hub_results2.bse)
const       -41.026498
AIRFLOW       0.829384
WATERTEMP     0.926066
ACIDCONC     -0.127847
dtype: float64
const        9.089504
AIRFLOW      0.119460
WATERTEMP    0.322355
ACIDCONC     0.117963
dtype: float64

Andrew’s Wave norm with Huber’s Proposal 2 scaling and ‘H3’ covariance matrix

[6]:
andrew_mod = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.AndrewWave())
andrew_results = andrew_mod.fit(scale_est=sm.robust.scale.HuberScale(), cov="H3")
print("Parameters: ", andrew_results.params)
Parameters:  const       -40.881796
AIRFLOW       0.792761
WATERTEMP     1.048576
ACIDCONC     -0.133609
dtype: float64

See help(sm.RLM.fit) for more options and module sm.robust.scale for scale options

Comparing OLS and RLM

Artificial data with outliers:

[7]:
nsample = 50
x1 = np.linspace(0, 20, nsample)
X = np.column_stack((x1, (x1 - 5) ** 2))
X = sm.add_constant(X)
sig = 0.3  # smaller error variance makes OLS<->RLM contrast bigger
beta = [5, 0.5, -0.0]
y_true2 = np.dot(X, beta)
y2 = y_true2 + sig * 1.0 * np.random.normal(size=nsample)
y2[[39, 41, 43, 45, 48]] -= 5  # add some outliers (10% of nsample)

Example 1: quadratic function with linear truth

Note that the quadratic term in OLS regression will capture outlier effects.

[8]:
res = sm.OLS(y2, X).fit()
print(res.params)
print(res.bse)
print(res.predict())
[ 5.03680649  0.52447113 -0.01344875]
[0.44339952 0.0684549  0.0060572 ]
[ 4.70058767  4.96730986  5.229551    5.48731109  5.74059013  5.98938812
  6.23370506  6.47354095  6.70889578  6.93976957  7.16616231  7.38807399
  7.60550463  7.81845421  8.02692275  8.23091023  8.43041666  8.62544205
  8.81598638  9.00204966  9.18363189  9.36073307  9.5333532   9.70149228
  9.86515031 10.02432729 10.17902322 10.3292381  10.47497192 10.6162247
 10.75299642 10.8852871  11.01309672 11.1364253  11.25527282 11.36963929
 11.47952472 11.58492909 11.68585241 11.78229468 11.8742559  11.96173607
 12.04473519 12.12325326 12.19729028 12.26684624 12.33192116 12.39251503
 12.44862784 12.50025961]

Estimate RLM:

[9]:
resrlm = sm.RLM(y2, X).fit()
print(resrlm.params)
print(resrlm.bse)
[ 5.00719368e+00  4.99316879e-01 -1.71643267e-03]
[0.13025335 0.02010936 0.00177937]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

[10]:
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12, 8))
ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
ax.plot(x1, y2, "o", label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, "b-", label="True")
pred_ols = res.get_prediction()
iv_l = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_lower"]
iv_u = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_upper"]

ax.plot(x1, res.fittedvalues, "r-", label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, resrlm.fittedvalues, "g.-", label="RLM")
ax.legend(loc="best")
[10]:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x7f7f606c0040>
../../../_images/examples_notebooks_generated_robust_models_0_18_1.png

Example 2: linear function with linear truth

Fit a new OLS model using only the linear term and the constant:

[11]:
X2 = X[:, [0, 1]]
res2 = sm.OLS(y2, X2).fit()
print(res2.params)
print(res2.bse)
[5.57887357 0.3899836 ]
[0.38498502 0.03317187]

Estimate RLM:

[12]:
resrlm2 = sm.RLM(y2, X2).fit()
print(resrlm2.params)
print(resrlm2.bse)
[5.05862907 0.48494755]
[0.09554368 0.00823243]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

[13]:
pred_ols = res2.get_prediction()
iv_l = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_lower"]
iv_u = pred_ols.summary_frame()["obs_ci_upper"]

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8, 6))
ax.plot(x1, y2, "o", label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, "b-", label="True")
ax.plot(x1, res2.fittedvalues, "r-", label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, "r--")
ax.plot(x1, resrlm2.fittedvalues, "g.-", label="RLM")
legend = ax.legend(loc="best")
../../../_images/examples_notebooks_generated_robust_models_0_24_0.png