Source code for statsmodels.tsa.vector_ar.var_model

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
Vector Autoregression (VAR) processes

Lütkepohl (2005) New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis
from statsmodels.compat.pandas import deprecate_kwarg
from statsmodels.compat.python import lrange

from collections import defaultdict
from io import StringIO

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import scipy.stats as stats

import statsmodels.base.wrapper as wrap
from statsmodels.iolib.table import SimpleTable
from import cache_readonly, deprecated_alias
from import logdet_symm
from import OutputWarning
from import array_like
from statsmodels.tsa.base.tsa_model import (
import statsmodels.tsa.tsatools as tsa
from statsmodels.tsa.tsatools import duplication_matrix, unvec, vec
from statsmodels.tsa.vector_ar import output, plotting, util
from statsmodels.tsa.vector_ar.hypothesis_test_results import (
from statsmodels.tsa.vector_ar.irf import IRAnalysis
from statsmodels.tsa.vector_ar.output import VARSummary

# -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# VAR process routines

def ma_rep(coefs, maxn=10):
    MA(\infty) representation of VAR(p) process

    coefs : ndarray (p x k x k)
    maxn : int
        Number of MA matrices to compute

    VAR(p) process as

    .. math:: y_t = A_1 y_{t-1} + \ldots + A_p y_{t-p} + u_t

    can be equivalently represented as

    .. math:: y_t = \mu + \sum_{i=0}^\infty \Phi_i u_{t-i}

    e.g. can recursively compute the \Phi_i matrices with \Phi_0 = I_k

    phis : ndarray (maxn + 1 x k x k)
    p, k, k = coefs.shape
    phis = np.zeros((maxn+1, k, k))
    phis[0] = np.eye(k)

    # recursively compute Phi matrices
    for i in range(1, maxn + 1):
        for j in range(1, i+1):
            if j > p:

            phis[i] +=[i-j], coefs[j-1])

    return phis

def is_stable(coefs, verbose=False):
    Determine stability of VAR(p) system by examining the eigenvalues of the
    VAR(1) representation

    coefs : ndarray (p x k x k)

    is_stable : bool
    A_var1 = util.comp_matrix(coefs)
    eigs = np.linalg.eigvals(A_var1)

    if verbose:
        print('Eigenvalues of VAR(1) rep')
        for val in np.abs(eigs):

    return (np.abs(eigs) <= 1).all()

def var_acf(coefs, sig_u, nlags=None):
    Compute autocovariance function ACF_y(h) up to nlags of stable VAR(p)

    coefs : ndarray (p x k x k)
        Coefficient matrices A_i
    sig_u : ndarray (k x k)
        Covariance of white noise process u_t
    nlags : int, optional
        Defaults to order p of system

    Ref: Lütkepohl p.28-29

    acf : ndarray, (p, k, k)
    p, k, _ = coefs.shape
    if nlags is None:
        nlags = p

    # p x k x k, ACF for lags 0, ..., p-1
    result = np.zeros((nlags + 1, k, k))
    result[:p] = _var_acf(coefs, sig_u)

    # yule-walker equations
    for h in range(p, nlags + 1):
        # compute ACF for lag=h
        # G(h) = A_1 G(h-1) + ... + A_p G(h-p)

        for j in range(p):
            result[h] +=[j], result[h-j-1])

    return result

def _var_acf(coefs, sig_u):
    Compute autocovariance function ACF_y(h) for h=1,...,p

    Lütkepohl (2005) p.29
    p, k, k2 = coefs.shape
    assert(k == k2)

    A = util.comp_matrix(coefs)
    # construct VAR(1) noise covariance
    SigU = np.zeros((k*p, k*p))
    SigU[:k, :k] = sig_u

    # vec(ACF) = (I_(kp)^2 - kron(A, A))^-1 vec(Sigma_U)
    vecACF = np.linalg.solve(np.eye((k*p)**2) - np.kron(A, A), vec(SigU))

    acf = unvec(vecACF)
    acf = [acf[:k, k * i:k * (i + 1)] for i in range(p)]
    acf = np.array(acf)

    return acf

def forecast_cov(ma_coefs, sigma_u, steps):
    Compute theoretical forecast error variance matrices

    steps : int
        Number of steps ahead

    .. math:: \mathrm{MSE}(h) = \sum_{i=0}^{h-1} \Phi \Sigma_u \Phi^T

    forc_covs : ndarray (steps x neqs x neqs)
    neqs = len(sigma_u)
    forc_covs = np.zeros((steps, neqs, neqs))

    prior = np.zeros((neqs, neqs))
    for h in range(steps):
        # Sigma(h) = Sigma(h-1) + Phi Sig_u Phi'
        phi = ma_coefs[h]
        var = phi @ sigma_u @ phi.T
        forc_covs[h] = prior = prior + var

    return forc_covs

mse = forecast_cov

def forecast(y, coefs, trend_coefs, steps, exog=None):
    Produce linear minimum MSE forecast

    y : ndarray (k_ar x neqs)
    coefs : ndarray (k_ar x neqs x neqs)
    trend_coefs : ndarray (1 x neqs) or (neqs)
    steps : int
    exog : ndarray (trend_coefs.shape[1] x neqs)

    forecasts : ndarray (steps x neqs)

    Lütkepohl p. 37
    p = len(coefs)
    k = len(coefs[0])
    # initial value
    forcs = np.zeros((steps, k))
    if exog is not None and trend_coefs is not None:
        forcs +=, trend_coefs)
    # to make existing code (with trend_coefs=intercept and without exog) work:
    elif exog is None and trend_coefs is not None:
        forcs += trend_coefs

    # h=0 forecast should be latest observation
    # forcs[0] = y[-1]

    # make indices easier to think about
    for h in range(1, steps + 1):
        # y_t(h) = intercept + sum_1^p A_i y_t_(h-i)
        f = forcs[h - 1]
        for i in range(1, p + 1):
            # slightly hackish
            if h - i <= 0:
                # e.g. when h=1, h-1 = 0, which is y[-1]
                prior_y = y[h - i - 1]
                # e.g. when h=2, h-1=1, which is forcs[0]
                prior_y = forcs[h - i - 1]

            # i=1 is coefs[0]
            f = f +[i - 1], prior_y)

        forcs[h - 1] = f

    return forcs

def _forecast_vars(steps, ma_coefs, sig_u):
    """_forecast_vars function used by VECMResults. Note that the definition
    of the local variable covs is the same as in VARProcess and as such it
    differs from the one in VARResults!


    covs = mse(ma_coefs, sig_u, steps)
    # Take diagonal for each cov
    neqs = len(sig_u)
    inds = np.arange(neqs)
    return covs[:, inds, inds]

def forecast_interval(y, coefs, trend_coefs, sig_u, steps=5, alpha=0.05,
    assert(0 < alpha < 1)
    q = util.norm_signif_level(alpha)

    point_forecast = forecast(y, coefs, trend_coefs, steps, exog)
    ma_coefs = ma_rep(coefs, steps)
    sigma = np.sqrt(_forecast_vars(steps, ma_coefs, sig_u))

    forc_lower = point_forecast - q * sigma
    forc_upper = point_forecast + q * sigma

    return point_forecast, forc_lower, forc_upper

def var_loglike(resid, omega, nobs):
    Returns the value of the VAR(p) log-likelihood.

    resid : ndarray (T x K)
    omega : ndarray
        Sigma hat matrix.  Each element i,j is the average product of the
        OLS residual for variable i and the OLS residual for variable j or,resid)/nobs.  There should be no correction for the
        degrees of freedom.
    nobs : int

    llf : float
        The value of the loglikelihood function for a VAR(p) model

    The loglikelihood function for the VAR(p) is

    .. math::

    logdet = logdet_symm(np.asarray(omega))
    neqs = len(omega)
    part1 = - (nobs * neqs / 2) * np.log(2 * np.pi)
    part2 = - (nobs / 2) * (logdet + neqs)
    return part1 + part2

def _reordered(self, order):
    # Create new arrays to hold rearranged results from .fit()
    endog = self.endog
    endog_lagged = self.endog_lagged
    params = self.params
    sigma_u = self.sigma_u
    names = self.names
    k_ar = self.k_ar
    endog_new = np.zeros([np.size(endog, 0), np.size(endog, 1)])
    endog_lagged_new = np.zeros([np.size(endog_lagged, 0), np.size(endog_lagged, 1)])
    params_new_inc, params_new = [np.zeros([np.size(params, 0), np.size(params, 1)])
                                  for i in range(2)]
    sigma_u_new_inc, sigma_u_new = [np.zeros([np.size(sigma_u, 0), np.size(sigma_u, 1)])
                                    for i in range(2)]
    num_end = len(self.params[0])
    names_new = []

    # Rearrange elements and fill in new arrays
    k = self.k_trend
    for i, c in enumerate(order):
        endog_new[:, i] = self.endog[:, c]
        if k > 0:
            params_new_inc[0, i] = params[0, i]
            endog_lagged_new[:, 0] = endog_lagged[:, 0]
        for j in range(k_ar):
            params_new_inc[i+j*num_end+k, :] = self.params[c+j*num_end+k, :]
            endog_lagged_new[:, i+j*num_end+k] = endog_lagged[:, c+j*num_end+k]
        sigma_u_new_inc[i, :] = sigma_u[c, :]
    for i, c in enumerate(order):
        params_new[:, i] = params_new_inc[:, c]
        sigma_u_new[:, i] = sigma_u_new_inc[:, c]

    return VARResults(endog=endog_new, endog_lagged=endog_lagged_new,
                      params=params_new, sigma_u=sigma_u_new,
                      lag_order=self.k_ar, model=self.model,
                      trend='c', names=names_new, dates=self.dates)

def orth_ma_rep(results, maxn=10, P=None):
    r"""Compute Orthogonalized MA coefficient matrices using P matrix such
    that :math:`\Sigma_u = PP^\prime`. P defaults to the Cholesky
    decomposition of :math:`\Sigma_u`

    results : VARResults or VECMResults
    maxn : int
        Number of coefficient matrices to compute
    P : ndarray (neqs x neqs), optional
        Matrix such that Sigma_u = PP', defaults to the Cholesky decomposition.

    coefs : ndarray (maxn x neqs x neqs)
    if P is None:
        P = results._chol_sigma_u

    ma_mats = results.ma_rep(maxn=maxn)
    return np.array([, P) for coefs in ma_mats])

def test_normality(results, signif=0.05):
    Test assumption of normal-distributed errors using Jarque-Bera-style
    omnibus Chi^2 test

    results : VARResults or statsmodels.tsa.vecm.vecm.VECMResults
    signif : float
        The test's significance level.

    H0 (null) : data are generated by a Gaussian-distributed process

    result : NormalityTestResults

    .. [1] Lütkepohl, H. 2005. *New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis*. Springer.

    .. [2] Kilian, L. & Demiroglu, U. (2000). "Residual-Based Tests for
       Normality in Autoregressions: Asymptotic Theory and Simulation
       Evidence." Journal of Business & Economic Statistics
    resid_c = results.resid - results.resid.mean(0)
    sig =, resid_c) / results.nobs
    Pinv = np.linalg.inv(np.linalg.cholesky(sig))

    w =, resid_c.T)
    b1 = (w**3).sum(1)[:, None] / results.nobs
    b2 = (w**4).sum(1)[:, None] / results.nobs - 3

    lam_skew = results.nobs *, b1) / 6
    lam_kurt = results.nobs *, b2) / 24

    lam_omni = float(lam_skew + lam_kurt)
    omni_dist = stats.chi2(results.neqs * 2)
    omni_pvalue = float(omni_dist.sf(lam_omni))
    crit_omni = float(omni_dist.ppf(1 - signif))

    return NormalityTestResults(lam_omni, crit_omni, omni_pvalue,
                                results.neqs*2, signif)

[docs]class LagOrderResults: """ Results class for choosing a model's lag order. Parameters ---------- ics : dict The keys are the strings ``"aic"``, ``"bic"``, ``"hqic"``, and ``"fpe"``. A corresponding value is a list of information criteria for various numbers of lags. selected_orders : dict The keys are the strings ``"aic"``, ``"bic"``, ``"hqic"``, and ``"fpe"``. The corresponding value is an integer specifying the number of lags chosen according to a given criterion (key). vecm : bool, default: `False` `True` indicates that the model is a VECM. In case of a VAR model this argument must be `False`. Notes ----- In case of a VECM the shown lags are lagged differences. """ def __init__(self, ics, selected_orders, vecm=False): self.title = ("VECM" if vecm else "VAR") + " Order Selection" self.title += " (* highlights the minimums)" self.ics = ics self.selected_orders = selected_orders self.vecm = vecm self.aic = selected_orders["aic"] self.bic = selected_orders["bic"] self.hqic = selected_orders["hqic"] self.fpe = selected_orders["fpe"]
[docs] def summary(self): # basically copied from (now deleted) print_ic_table() cols = sorted(self.ics) # ["aic", "bic", "hqic", "fpe"] str_data = np.array([["%#10.4g" % v for v in self.ics[c]] for c in cols], dtype=object).T # mark minimum with an asterisk for i, col in enumerate(cols): idx = int(self.selected_orders[col]), i str_data[idx] += '*' return SimpleTable(str_data, [col.upper() for col in cols], lrange(len(str_data)), title=self.title)
def __str__(self): return "<" + self.__module__ + "." + self.__class__.__name__ \ + " object. Selected orders are: AIC -> " + str(self.aic) \ + ", BIC -> " + str(self.bic) \ + ", FPE -> " + str(self.fpe) \ + ", HQIC -> " + str(self.hqic) + ">"
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- # VARProcess class: for known or unknown VAR process
[docs]class VAR(TimeSeriesModel): r""" Fit VAR(p) process and do lag order selection .. math:: y_t = A_1 y_{t-1} + \ldots + A_p y_{t-p} + u_t Parameters ---------- endog : array_like 2-d endogenous response variable. The independent variable. exog : array_like 2-d exogenous variable. dates : array_like must match number of rows of endog References ---------- Lütkepohl (2005) New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis """ y = deprecated_alias("y", "endog", remove_version="0.11.0") def __init__(self, endog, exog=None, dates=None, freq=None, missing='none'): super(VAR, self).__init__(endog, exog, dates, freq, missing=missing) if self.endog.ndim == 1: raise ValueError("Only gave one variable to VAR") self.neqs = self.endog.shape[1] self.n_totobs = len(endog)
[docs] def predict(self, params, start=None, end=None, lags=1, trend='c'): """ Returns in-sample predictions or forecasts """ params = np.array(params) if start is None: start = lags # Handle start, end start, end, out_of_sample, prediction_index = ( self._get_prediction_index(start, end)) if end < start: raise ValueError("end is before start") if end == start + out_of_sample: return np.array([]) k_trend = util.get_trendorder(trend) k = self.neqs k_ar = lags predictedvalues = np.zeros((end + 1 - start + out_of_sample, k)) if k_trend != 0: intercept = params[:k_trend] predictedvalues += intercept y = self.endog x = util.get_var_endog(y, lags, trend=trend, has_constant='raise') fittedvalues =, params) fv_start = start - k_ar pv_end = min(len(predictedvalues), len(fittedvalues) - fv_start) fv_end = min(len(fittedvalues), end - k_ar + 1) predictedvalues[:pv_end] = fittedvalues[fv_start:fv_end] if not out_of_sample: return predictedvalues # fit out of sample y = y[-k_ar:] coefs = params[k_trend:].reshape((k_ar, k, k)).swapaxes(1, 2) predictedvalues[pv_end:] = forecast(y, coefs, intercept, out_of_sample) return predictedvalues
[docs] def fit(self, maxlags=None, method='ols', ic=None, trend='c', verbose=False): # todo: this code is only supporting deterministic terms as exog. # This means that all exog-variables have lag 0. If dealing with # different exogs is necessary, a `lags_exog`-parameter might make # sense (e.g. a sequence of ints specifying lags). # Alternatively, leading zeros for exog-variables with smaller number # of lags than the maximum number of exog-lags might work. """ Fit the VAR model Parameters ---------- maxlags : {int, None}, default None Maximum number of lags to check for order selection, defaults to 12 * (nobs/100.)**(1./4), see select_order function method : {'ols'} Estimation method to use ic : {'aic', 'fpe', 'hqic', 'bic', None} Information criterion to use for VAR order selection. aic : Akaike fpe : Final prediction error hqic : Hannan-Quinn bic : Bayesian a.k.a. Schwarz verbose : bool, default False Print order selection output to the screen trend : str {"c", "ct", "ctt", "nc", "n"} "c" - add constant "ct" - constant and trend "ctt" - constant, linear and quadratic trend "n", "nc" - co constant, no trend Note that these are prepended to the columns of the dataset. Returns ------- VARResults Estimation results Notes ----- See Lütkepohl pp. 146-153 for implementation details. """ lags = maxlags if trend not in ['c', 'ct', 'ctt', 'nc', 'n']: raise ValueError("trend '{}' not supported for VAR".format(trend)) if ic is not None: selections = self.select_order(maxlags=maxlags) if not hasattr(selections, ic): raise ValueError("%s not recognized, must be among %s" % (ic, sorted(selections))) lags = getattr(selections, ic) if verbose: print(selections) print('Using %d based on %s criterion' % (lags, ic)) else: if lags is None: lags = 1 k_trend = util.get_trendorder(trend) orig_exog_names = self.exog_names self.exog_names = util.make_lag_names(self.endog_names, lags, k_trend) self.nobs = self.n_totobs - lags # add exog to data.xnames (necessary because the length of xnames also # determines the allowed size of VARResults.params) if self.exog is not None: if orig_exog_names: x_names_to_add = orig_exog_names else: x_names_to_add = [("exog%d" % i) for i in range(self.exog.shape[1])] = ([:k_trend] + x_names_to_add +[k_trend:]) = pd.MultiIndex.from_product((, return self._estimate_var(lags, trend=trend)
def _estimate_var(self, lags, offset=0, trend='c'): """ lags : int Lags of the endogenous variable. offset : int Periods to drop from beginning-- for order selection so it's an apples-to-apples comparison trend : {str, None} As per above """ # have to do this again because select_order does not call fit self.k_trend = k_trend = util.get_trendorder(trend) if offset < 0: # pragma: no cover raise ValueError('offset must be >= 0') nobs = self.n_totobs - lags - offset endog = self.endog[offset:] exog = None if self.exog is None else self.exog[offset:] z = util.get_var_endog(endog, lags, trend=trend, has_constant='raise') if exog is not None: # TODO: currently only deterministic terms supported (exoglags==0) # and since exoglags==0, x will be an array of size 0. x = util.get_var_endog(exog[-nobs:], 0, trend="n", has_constant="raise") x_inst = exog[-nobs:] x = np.column_stack((x, x_inst)) del x_inst # free memory temp_z = z z = np.empty((x.shape[0], x.shape[1]+z.shape[1])) z[:, :self.k_trend] = temp_z[:, :self.k_trend] z[:, self.k_trend:self.k_trend+x.shape[1]] = x z[:, self.k_trend+x.shape[1]:] = temp_z[:, self.k_trend:] del temp_z, x # free memory # the following modification of z is necessary to get the same results # as JMulTi for the constant-term-parameter... for i in range(self.k_trend): if (np.diff(z[:, i]) == 1).all(): # modify the trend-column z[:, i] += lags # make the same adjustment for the quadratic term if (np.diff(np.sqrt(z[:, i])) == 1).all(): z[:, i] = (np.sqrt(z[:, i]) + lags)**2 y_sample = endog[lags:] # Lütkepohl p75, about 5x faster than stated formula params = np.linalg.lstsq(z, y_sample, rcond=1e-15)[0] resid = y_sample -, params) # Unbiased estimate of covariance matrix $\Sigma_u$ of the white noise # process $u$ # equivalent definition # .. math:: \frac{1}{T - Kp - 1} Y^\prime (I_T - Z (Z^\prime Z)^{-1} # Z^\prime) Y # Ref: Lütkepohl p.75 # df_resid right now is T - Kp - 1, which is a suggested correction avobs = len(y_sample) if exog is not None: k_trend += exog.shape[1] df_resid = avobs - (self.neqs * lags + k_trend) sse =, resid) omega = sse / df_resid varfit = VARResults(endog, z, params, omega, lags, names=self.endog_names, trend=trend,, model=self, exog=self.exog) return VARResultsWrapper(varfit)
[docs] def select_order(self, maxlags=None, trend="c"): """ Compute lag order selections based on each of the available information criteria Parameters ---------- maxlags : int if None, defaults to 12 * (nobs/100.)**(1./4) trend : str {"nc", "c", "ct", "ctt"} * "nc" - no deterministic terms * "c" - constant term * "ct" - constant and linear term * "ctt" - constant, linear, and quadratic term Returns ------- selections : LagOrderResults """ ntrend = len(trend) if trend.startswith("c") else 0 max_estimable = (self.n_totobs - self.neqs - ntrend) // (1 + self.neqs) if maxlags is None: maxlags = int(round(12*(len(self.endog)/100.)**(1/4.))) # TODO: This expression shows up in a bunch of places, but # in some it is `int` and in others `np.ceil`. Also in some # it multiplies by 4 instead of 12. Let's put these all in # one place and document when to use which variant. # Ensure enough obs to estimate model with maxlags maxlags = min(maxlags, max_estimable) else: if maxlags > max_estimable: raise ValueError( "maxlags is too large for the number of observations and " "the number of equations. The largest model cannot be " "estimated." ) ics = defaultdict(list) p_min = 0 if self.exog is not None or trend != "nc" else 1 for p in range(p_min, maxlags + 1): # exclude some periods to same amount of data used for each lag # order result = self._estimate_var(p, offset=maxlags - p, trend=trend) for k, v in result.info_criteria.items(): ics[k].append(v) selected_orders = dict((k, np.array(v).argmin() + p_min) for k, v in ics.items()) return LagOrderResults(ics, selected_orders, vecm=False)
[docs] @classmethod def from_formula(cls, formula, data, subset=None, drop_cols=None, *args, **kwargs): """ Not implemented. Formulas are not supported for VAR models. """ raise NotImplementedError("formulas are not supported for VAR models.")
[docs]class VARProcess(object): """ Class represents a known VAR(p) process Parameters ---------- coefs : ndarray (p x k x k) coefficients for lags of endog, part or params reshaped coefs_exog : ndarray parameters for trend and user provided exog sigma_u : ndarray (k x k) residual covariance names : sequence (length k) _params_info : dict internal dict to provide information about the composition of `params`, specifically `k_trend` (trend order) and `k_exog_user` (the number of exog variables provided by the user). If it is None, then coefs_exog are assumed to be for the intercept and trend. """ def __init__(self, coefs, coefs_exog, sigma_u, names=None, _params_info=None): self.k_ar = len(coefs) self.neqs = coefs.shape[1] self.coefs = coefs self.coefs_exog = coefs_exog # Note reshaping 1-D coefs_exog to 2_D makes unit tests fail self.sigma_u = sigma_u self.names = names if _params_info is None: _params_info = {} self.k_exog_user = _params_info.get('k_exog_user', 0) if self.coefs_exog is not None: k_ex = self.coefs_exog.shape[0] if self.coefs_exog.ndim != 1 else 1 k_c = k_ex - self.k_exog_user else: k_c = 0 self.k_trend = _params_info.get('k_trend', k_c) # TODO: we need to distinguish exog including trend and exog_user self.k_exog = self.k_trend + self.k_exog_user if self.k_trend > 0: if coefs_exog.ndim == 2: self.intercept = coefs_exog[:, 0] else: self.intercept = coefs_exog else: self.intercept = np.zeros(self.neqs)
[docs] def get_eq_index(self, name): """Return integer position of requested equation name""" return util.get_index(self.names, name)
def __str__(self): output = ('VAR(%d) process for %d-dimensional response y_t' % (self.k_ar, self.neqs)) output += '\nstable: %s' % self.is_stable() output += '\nmean: %s' % self.mean() return output
[docs] def is_stable(self, verbose=False): """Determine stability based on model coefficients Parameters ---------- verbose : bool Print eigenvalues of the VAR(1) companion Notes ----- Checks if det(I - Az) = 0 for any mod(z) <= 1, so all the eigenvalues of the companion matrix must lie outside the unit circle """ return is_stable(self.coefs, verbose=verbose)
[docs] def simulate_var(self, steps=None, offset=None, seed=None): """ simulate the VAR(p) process for the desired number of steps Parameters ---------- steps : None or int number of observations to simulate, this includes the initial observations to start the autoregressive process. If offset is not None, then exog of the model are used if they were provided in the model offset : None or ndarray (steps, neqs) If not None, then offset is added as an observation specific intercept to the autoregression. If it is None and either trend (including intercept) or exog were used in the VAR model, then the linear predictor of those components will be used as offset. This should have the same number of rows as steps, and the same number of columns as endogenous variables (neqs). seed : {None, int} If seed is not None, then it will be used with for the random variables generated by numpy.random. Returns ------- endog_simulated : nd_array Endog of the simulated VAR process """ steps_ = None if offset is None: if self.k_exog_user > 0 or self.k_trend > 1: # if more than intercept # endog_lagged contains all regressors, trend, exog_user # and lagged endog, trimmed initial observations offset = self.endog_lagged[:,:self.k_exog].dot( self.coefs_exog.T) steps_ = self.endog_lagged.shape[0] else: offset = self.intercept else: steps_ = offset.shape[0] # default, but over written if exog or offset are used if steps is None: if steps_ is None: steps = 1000 else: steps = steps_ else: if steps_ is not None and steps != steps_: raise ValueError('if exog or offset are used, then steps must' 'be equal to their length or None') y = util.varsim(self.coefs, offset, self.sigma_u, steps=steps, seed=seed) return y
[docs] def plotsim(self, steps=None, offset=None, seed=None): """ Plot a simulation from the VAR(p) process for the desired number of steps """ y = self.simulate_var(steps=steps, offset=offset, seed=seed) return plotting.plot_mts(y)
[docs] def intercept_longrun(self): r""" Long run intercept of stable VAR process Lütkepohl eq. 2.1.23 .. math:: \mu = (I - A_1 - \dots - A_p)^{-1} \alpha where \alpha is the intercept (parameter of the constant) """ return np.linalg.solve(self._char_mat, self.intercept)
[docs] def mean(self): r""" Long run intercept of stable VAR process Warning: trend and exog except for intercept are ignored for this. This might change in future versions. Lütkepohl eq. 2.1.23 .. math:: \mu = (I - A_1 - \dots - A_p)^{-1} \alpha where \alpha is the intercept (parameter of the constant) """ return self.intercept_longrun()
[docs] def ma_rep(self, maxn=10): r""" Compute MA(:math:`\infty`) coefficient matrices Parameters ---------- maxn : int Number of coefficient matrices to compute Returns ------- coefs : ndarray (maxn x k x k) """ return ma_rep(self.coefs, maxn=maxn)
[docs] def orth_ma_rep(self, maxn=10, P=None): r""" Compute orthogonalized MA coefficient matrices using P matrix such that :math:`\Sigma_u = PP^\prime`. P defaults to the Cholesky decomposition of :math:`\Sigma_u` Parameters ---------- maxn : int Number of coefficient matrices to compute P : ndarray (k x k), optional Matrix such that Sigma_u = PP', defaults to Cholesky descomp Returns ------- coefs : ndarray (maxn x k x k) """ return orth_ma_rep(self, maxn, P)
[docs] def long_run_effects(self): r"""Compute long-run effect of unit impulse .. math:: \Psi_\infty = \sum_{i=0}^\infty \Phi_i """ return np.linalg.inv(self._char_mat)
@cache_readonly def _chol_sigma_u(self): return np.linalg.cholesky(self.sigma_u) @cache_readonly def _char_mat(self): """Characteristic matrix of the VAR""" return np.eye(self.neqs) - self.coefs.sum(0)
[docs] def acf(self, nlags=None): """Compute theoretical autocovariance function Returns ------- acf : ndarray (p x k x k) """ return var_acf(self.coefs, self.sigma_u, nlags=nlags)
[docs] def acorr(self, nlags=None): """ Autocorrelation function Parameters ---------- nlags : int or None The number of lags to include in the autocovariance function. The default is the number of lags included in the model. Returns ------- acorr : ndarray Autocorrelation and cross correlations (nlags, neqs, neqs) """ return util.acf_to_acorr(self.acf(nlags=nlags))
[docs] def plot_acorr(self, nlags=10, linewidth=8): """Plot theoretical autocorrelation function""" fig = plotting.plot_full_acorr(self.acorr(nlags=nlags), linewidth=linewidth) return fig
[docs] def forecast(self, y, steps, exog_future=None): """Produce linear minimum MSE forecasts for desired number of steps ahead, using prior values y Parameters ---------- y : ndarray (p x k) steps : int Returns ------- forecasts : ndarray (steps x neqs) Notes ----- Lütkepohl pp 37-38 """ if self.exog is None and exog_future is not None: raise ValueError("No exog in model, so no exog_future supported " "in forecast method.") if self.exog is not None and exog_future is None: raise ValueError("Please provide an exog_future argument to " "the forecast method.") exog_future = array_like(exog_future, "exog_future", optional=True, ndim=2) if exog_future is not None: if exog_future.shape[0] != steps: err_msg = f"""\ exog_future only has {exog_future.shape[0]} observations. It must have \ steps ({steps}) observations. """ raise ValueError(err_msg) trend_coefs = None if self.coefs_exog.size == 0 else self.coefs_exog.T exogs = [] if self.trend.startswith("c"): # constant term exogs.append(np.ones(steps)) exog_lin_trend = np.arange(self.n_totobs + 1, self.n_totobs + 1 + steps) if "t" in self.trend: exogs.append(exog_lin_trend) if "tt" in self.trend: exogs.append(exog_lin_trend**2) if exog_future is not None: exogs.append(exog_future) if not exogs: exog_future = None else: exog_future = np.column_stack(exogs) return forecast(y, self.coefs, trend_coefs, steps, exog_future)
# TODO: use `mse` module-level function?
[docs] def mse(self, steps): r""" Compute theoretical forecast error variance matrices Parameters ---------- steps : int Number of steps ahead Notes ----- .. math:: \mathrm{MSE}(h) = \sum_{i=0}^{h-1} \Phi \Sigma_u \Phi^T Returns ------- forc_covs : ndarray (steps x neqs x neqs) """ ma_coefs = self.ma_rep(steps) k = len(self.sigma_u) forc_covs = np.zeros((steps, k, k)) prior = np.zeros((k, k)) for h in range(steps): # Sigma(h) = Sigma(h-1) + Phi Sig_u Phi' phi = ma_coefs[h] var = phi @ self.sigma_u @ phi.T forc_covs[h] = prior = prior + var return forc_covs
forecast_cov = mse def _forecast_vars(self, steps): covs = self.forecast_cov(steps) # Take diagonal for each cov inds = np.arange(self.neqs) return covs[:, inds, inds]
[docs] def forecast_interval(self, y, steps, alpha=0.05, exog_future=None): """ Construct forecast interval estimates assuming the y are Gaussian Parameters ---------- y : {ndarray, None} The initial values to use for the forecasts. If None, the last k_ar values of the original endogenous variables are used. steps : int Number of steps ahead to forecast alpha : float, optional The significance level for the confidence intervals. exog_future : ndarray, optional Forecast values of the exogenous variables. Should include constant, trend, etc. as needed, including extrapolating out of sample. Returns ------- point : ndarray Mean value of forecast lower : ndarray Lower bound of confidence interval upper : ndarray Upper bound of confidence interval Notes ----- Lütkepohl pp. 39-40 """ if not 0 < alpha < 1: raise ValueError('alpha must be between 0 and 1') q = util.norm_signif_level(alpha) point_forecast = self.forecast(y, steps, exog_future=exog_future) sigma = np.sqrt(self._forecast_vars(steps)) forc_lower = point_forecast - q * sigma forc_upper = point_forecast + q * sigma return point_forecast, forc_lower, forc_upper
[docs] def to_vecm(self): """to_vecm""" k = self.coefs.shape[1] p = self.coefs.shape[0] A = self.coefs pi = -(np.identity(k) - np.sum(A, 0)) gamma = np.zeros((p-1, k, k)) for i in range(p-1): gamma[i] = -(np.sum(A[i+1:], 0)) gamma = np.concatenate(gamma, 1) return {"Gamma": gamma, "Pi": pi}
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- # VARResults class
[docs]class VARResults(VARProcess): """Estimate VAR(p) process with fixed number of lags Parameters ---------- endog : ndarray endog_lagged : ndarray params : ndarray sigma_u : ndarray lag_order : int model : VAR model instance trend : str {'nc', 'c', 'ct'} names : array_like List of names of the endogenous variables in order of appearance in `endog`. dates exog : ndarray Attributes ---------- coefs : ndarray (p x K x K) Estimated A_i matrices, A_i = coefs[i-1] dates endog endog_lagged k_ar : int Order of VAR process k_trend : int model names neqs : int Number of variables (equations) nobs : int n_totobs : int params : ndarray (Kp + 1) x K A_i matrices and intercept in stacked form [int A_1 ... A_p] names : list variables names resid sigma_u : ndarray (K x K) Estimate of white noise process variance Var[u_t] tvalues y : ys_lagged """ _model_type = 'VAR' y = deprecated_alias("y", "endog", remove_version="0.11.0") ys_lagged = deprecated_alias("ys_lagged", "endog_lagged", remove_version="0.11.0") def __init__(self, endog, endog_lagged, params, sigma_u, lag_order, model=None, trend='c', names=None, dates=None, exog=None): self.model = model self.endog = endog self.endog_lagged = endog_lagged self.dates = dates self.n_totobs, neqs = self.endog.shape self.nobs = self.n_totobs - lag_order self.trend = trend k_trend = util.get_trendorder(trend) self.exog_names = util.make_lag_names(names, lag_order, k_trend, self.params = params self.exog = exog # Initialize VARProcess parent class # construct coefficient matrices # Each matrix needs to be transposed endog_start = k_trend if exog is not None: k_exog_user = exog.shape[1] endog_start += k_exog_user else: k_exog_user = 0 reshaped = self.params[endog_start:] reshaped = reshaped.reshape((lag_order, neqs, neqs)) # Need to transpose each coefficient matrix coefs = reshaped.swapaxes(1, 2).copy() self.coefs_exog = params[:endog_start].T self.k_exog = self.coefs_exog.shape[1] self.k_exog_user = k_exog_user # maybe change to params class, distinguish exog_all versus exog_user # see issue #4535 _params_info = {'k_trend': k_trend, 'k_exog_user': k_exog_user, 'k_ar': lag_order} super(VARResults, self).__init__(coefs, self.coefs_exog, sigma_u, names=names, _params_info=_params_info)
[docs] def plot(self): """Plot input time series""" return plotting.plot_mts(self.endog, names=self.names, index=self.dates)
@property def df_model(self): """ Number of estimated parameters, including the intercept / trends """ return self.neqs * self.k_ar + self.k_exog @property def df_resid(self): """Number of observations minus number of estimated parameters""" return self.nobs - self.df_model @cache_readonly def fittedvalues(self): """ The predicted insample values of the response variables of the model. """ return, self.params) @cache_readonly def resid(self): """ Residuals of response variable resulting from estimated coefficients """ return self.endog[self.k_ar:] - self.fittedvalues
[docs] def sample_acov(self, nlags=1): """Sample acov""" return _compute_acov(self.endog[self.k_ar:], nlags=nlags)
[docs] def sample_acorr(self, nlags=1): """Sample acorr""" acovs = self.sample_acov(nlags=nlags) return _acovs_to_acorrs(acovs)
[docs] def plot_sample_acorr(self, nlags=10, linewidth=8): """ Plot sample autocorrelation function Parameters ---------- nlags : int The number of lags to use in compute the autocorrelation. Does not count the zero lag, which will be returned. linewidth : int The linewidth for the plots. Returns ------- Figure The figure that contains the plot axes. """ fig = plotting.plot_full_acorr(self.sample_acorr(nlags=nlags), linewidth=linewidth) return fig
[docs] def resid_acov(self, nlags=1): """ Compute centered sample autocovariance (including lag 0) Parameters ---------- nlags : int Returns ------- """ return _compute_acov(self.resid, nlags=nlags)
[docs] def resid_acorr(self, nlags=1): """ Compute sample autocorrelation (including lag 0) Parameters ---------- nlags : int Returns ------- """ acovs = self.resid_acov(nlags=nlags) return _acovs_to_acorrs(acovs)
@cache_readonly def resid_corr(self): """ Centered residual correlation matrix """ return self.resid_acorr(0)[0] @cache_readonly def sigma_u_mle(self): """(Biased) maximum likelihood estimate of noise process covariance """ return self.sigma_u * self.df_resid / self.nobs
[docs] def cov_params(self): """Estimated variance-covariance of model coefficients Notes ----- Covariance of vec(B), where B is the matrix [params_for_deterministic_terms, A_1, ..., A_p] with the shape (K x (Kp + number_of_deterministic_terms)) Adjusted to be an unbiased estimator Ref: Lütkepohl p.74-75 """ z = self.endog_lagged return np.kron(np.linalg.inv(z.T @ z), self.sigma_u)
[docs] def cov_ybar(self): r"""Asymptotically consistent estimate of covariance of the sample mean .. math:: \sqrt(T) (\bar{y} - \mu) \rightarrow {\cal N}(0, \Sigma_{\bar{y}})\\ \Sigma_{\bar{y}} = B \Sigma_u B^\prime, \text{where } B = (I_K - A_1 - \cdots - A_p)^{-1} Notes ----- Lütkepohl Proposition 3.3 """ Ainv = np.linalg.inv(np.eye(self.neqs) - self.coefs.sum(0)) return Ainv @ self.sigma_u @ Ainv.T
# ------------------------------------------------------------ # Estimation-related things @cache_readonly def _zz(self): # Z'Z return, self.endog_lagged) @property def _cov_alpha(self): """ Estimated covariance matrix of model coefficients w/o exog """ # drop exog kn = self.k_exog * self.neqs return self.cov_params()[kn:, kn:] @cache_readonly def _cov_sigma(self): """ Estimated covariance matrix of vech(sigma_u) """ D_K = tsa.duplication_matrix(self.neqs) D_Kinv = np.linalg.pinv(D_K) sigxsig = np.kron(self.sigma_u, self.sigma_u) return 2 * D_Kinv @ sigxsig @ D_Kinv.T @cache_readonly def llf(self): "Compute VAR(p) loglikelihood" return var_loglike(self.resid, self.sigma_u_mle, self.nobs) @cache_readonly def stderr(self): """Standard errors of coefficients, reshaped to match in size """ stderr = np.sqrt(np.diag(self.cov_params())) return stderr.reshape((self.df_model, self.neqs), order='C') bse = stderr # statsmodels interface? @cache_readonly def stderr_endog_lagged(self): """Stderr_endog_lagged""" start = self.k_exog return self.stderr[start:] @cache_readonly def stderr_dt(self): """Stderr_dt""" end = self.k_exog return self.stderr[:end] @cache_readonly def tvalues(self): """Compute t-statistics. Use Student-t(T - Kp - 1) = t(df_resid) to test significance. """ return self.params / self.stderr @cache_readonly def tvalues_endog_lagged(self): """tvalues_endog_lagged""" start = self.k_exog return self.tvalues[start:] @cache_readonly def tvalues_dt(self): """tvalues_dt""" end = self.k_exog return self.tvalues[:end] @cache_readonly def pvalues(self): """Two-sided p-values for model coefficients from Student t-distribution """ # return stats.t.sf(np.abs(self.tvalues), self.df_resid)*2 return 2 * stats.norm.sf(np.abs(self.tvalues)) @cache_readonly def pvalues_endog_lagged(self): """pvalues_endog_laggd""" start = self.k_exog return self.pvalues[start:] @cache_readonly def pvalues_dt(self): """pvalues_dt""" end = self.k_exog return self.pvalues[:end] # todo: --------------------------------------------------------------------
[docs] def plot_forecast(self, steps, alpha=0.05, plot_stderr=True): """ Plot forecast """ mid, lower, upper = self.forecast_interval(self.endog[-self.k_ar:], steps, alpha=alpha) fig = plotting.plot_var_forc(self.endog, mid, lower, upper, names=self.names, plot_stderr=plot_stderr) return fig
# Forecast error covariance functions
[docs] def forecast_cov(self, steps=1, method='mse'): r"""Compute forecast covariance matrices for desired number of steps Parameters ---------- steps : int Notes ----- .. math:: \Sigma_{\hat y}(h) = \Sigma_y(h) + \Omega(h) / T Ref: Lütkepohl pp. 96-97 Returns ------- covs : ndarray (steps x k x k) """ fc_cov = self.mse(steps) if method == 'mse': pass elif method == 'auto': if self.k_exog == 1 and self.k_trend < 2: # currently only supported if no exog and trend in ['nc', 'c'] fc_cov += self._omega_forc_cov(steps) / self.nobs import warnings warnings.warn('forecast cov takes parameter uncertainty into' 'account', OutputWarning) else: raise ValueError("method has to be either 'mse' or 'auto'") return fc_cov
# Monte Carlo irf standard errors
[docs] @deprecate_kwarg('T', 'steps') def irf_errband_mc(self, orth=False, repl=1000, steps=10, signif=0.05, seed=None, burn=100, cum=False): """ Compute Monte Carlo integrated error bands assuming normally distributed for impulse response functions Parameters ---------- orth : bool, default False Compute orthogonalized impulse response error bands repl : int number of Monte Carlo replications to perform steps : int, default 10 number of impulse response periods signif : float (0 < signif <1) Significance level for error bars, defaults to 95% CI seed : int np.random.seed for replications burn : int number of initial observations to discard for simulation cum : bool, default False produce cumulative irf error bands Notes ----- Lütkepohl (2005) Appendix D Returns ------- Tuple of lower and upper arrays of ma_rep monte carlo standard errors """ ma_coll = self.irf_resim(orth=orth, repl=repl, steps=steps, seed=seed, burn=burn, cum=cum) ma_sort = np.sort(ma_coll, axis=0) # sort to get quantiles # python 2: round returns float low_idx = int(round(signif / 2 * repl) - 1) upp_idx = int(round((1 - signif / 2) * repl) - 1) lower = ma_sort[low_idx, :, :, :] upper = ma_sort[upp_idx, :, :, :] return lower, upper
[docs] @deprecate_kwarg('T', 'steps') def irf_resim(self, orth=False, repl=1000, steps=10, seed=None, burn=100, cum=False): """ Simulates impulse response function, returning an array of simulations. Used for Sims-Zha error band calculation. Parameters ---------- orth : bool, default False Compute orthogonalized impulse response error bands repl : int number of Monte Carlo replications to perform steps : int, default 10 number of impulse response periods signif : float (0 < signif <1) Significance level for error bars, defaults to 95% CI seed : int np.random.seed for replications burn : int number of initial observations to discard for simulation cum : bool, default False produce cumulative irf error bands Notes ----- .. [*] Sims, Christoper A., and Tao Zha. 1999. "Error Bands for Impulse Response." Econometrica 67: 1113-1155. Returns ------- Array of simulated impulse response functions """ neqs = self.neqs k_ar = self.k_ar coefs = self.coefs sigma_u = self.sigma_u intercept = self.intercept nobs = self.nobs nobs_original = nobs + k_ar ma_coll = np.zeros((repl, steps + 1, neqs, neqs)) def fill_coll(sim): ret = VAR(sim, exog=self.exog).fit(maxlags=k_ar, trend=self.trend) ret = ret.orth_ma_rep(maxn=steps) if orth else ret.ma_rep(maxn=steps) return ret.cumsum(axis=0) if cum else ret for i in range(repl): # discard first burn to eliminate correct for starting bias sim = util.varsim(coefs, intercept, sigma_u, seed=seed, steps=nobs_original+burn) sim = sim[burn:] ma_coll[i, :, :, :] = fill_coll(sim) return ma_coll
def _omega_forc_cov(self, steps): # Approximate MSE matrix \Omega(h) as defined in Lut p97 G = self._zz Ginv = np.linalg.inv(G) # memoize powers of B for speedup # TODO: see if can memoize better # TODO: much lower-hanging fruit in caching `np.trace` below. B = self._bmat_forc_cov() _B = {} def bpow(i): if i not in _B: _B[i] = np.linalg.matrix_power(B, i) return _B[i] phis = self.ma_rep(steps) sig_u = self.sigma_u omegas = np.zeros((steps, self.neqs, self.neqs)) for h in range(1, steps + 1): if h == 1: omegas[h-1] = self.df_model * self.sigma_u continue om = omegas[h-1] for i in range(h): for j in range(h): Bi = bpow(h - 1 - i) Bj = bpow(h - 1 - j) mult = np.trace(Bi.T @ Ginv @ Bj @ G) om += mult * phis[i] @ sig_u @ phis[j].T omegas[h-1] = om return omegas def _bmat_forc_cov(self): # B as defined on p. 96 of Lut upper = np.zeros((self.k_exog, self.df_model)) upper[:, :self.k_exog] = np.eye(self.k_exog) lower_dim = self.neqs * (self.k_ar - 1) eye = np.eye(lower_dim) lower = np.column_stack((np.zeros((lower_dim, self.k_exog)), eye, np.zeros((lower_dim, self.neqs)))) return np.vstack((upper, self.params.T, lower))
[docs] def summary(self): """Compute console output summary of estimates Returns ------- summary : VARSummary """ return VARSummary(self)
[docs] def irf(self, periods=10, var_decomp=None, var_order=None): """Analyze impulse responses to shocks in system Parameters ---------- periods : int var_decomp : ndarray (k x k), lower triangular Must satisfy Omega = P P', where P is the passed matrix. Defaults to Cholesky decomposition of Omega var_order : sequence Alternate variable order for Cholesky decomposition Returns ------- irf : IRAnalysis """ if var_order is not None: raise NotImplementedError('alternate variable order not implemented' ' (yet)') return IRAnalysis(self, P=var_decomp, periods=periods)
[docs] def fevd(self, periods=10, var_decomp=None): """ Compute forecast error variance decomposition ("fevd") Returns ------- fevd : FEVD instance """ return FEVD(self, P=var_decomp, periods=periods)
[docs] def reorder(self, order): """Reorder variables for structural specification """ if len(order) != len(self.params[0, :]): raise ValueError("Reorder specification length should match " "number of endogenous variables") # This converts order to list of integers if given as strings if isinstance(order[0], str): order_new = [] for i, nam in enumerate(order): order_new.append(self.names.index(order[i])) order = order_new return _reordered(self, order)
# -------------------------------------------------------------------------- # VAR Diagnostics: Granger-causality, whiteness of residuals, normality, etc
[docs] def test_causality(self, caused, causing=None, kind='f', signif=0.05): """ Test Granger causality Parameters ---------- caused : int or str or sequence of int or str If int or str, test whether the variable specified via this index (int) or name (str) is Granger-caused by the variable(s) specified by `causing`. If a sequence of int or str, test whether the corresponding variables are Granger-caused by the variable(s) specified by `causing`. causing : int or str or sequence of int or str or None, default: None If int or str, test whether the variable specified via this index (int) or name (str) is Granger-causing the variable(s) specified by `caused`. If a sequence of int or str, test whether the corresponding variables are Granger-causing the variable(s) specified by `caused`. If None, `causing` is assumed to be the complement of `caused`. kind : {'f', 'wald'} Perform F-test or Wald (chi-sq) test signif : float, default 5% Significance level for computing critical values for test, defaulting to standard 0.05 level Notes ----- Null hypothesis is that there is no Granger-causality for the indicated variables. The degrees of freedom in the F-test are based on the number of variables in the VAR system, that is, degrees of freedom are equal to the number of equations in the VAR times degree of freedom of a single equation. Test for Granger-causality as described in chapter 7.6.3 of [1]_. Test H0: "`causing` does not Granger-cause the remaining variables of the system" against H1: "`causing` is Granger-causal for the remaining variables". Returns ------- results : CausalityTestResults References ---------- .. [1] Lütkepohl, H. 2005. *New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis*. Springer. """ if not (0 < signif < 1): raise ValueError("signif has to be between 0 and 1") allowed_types = (str, int) if isinstance(caused, allowed_types): caused = [caused] if not all(isinstance(c, allowed_types) for c in caused): raise TypeError("caused has to be of type string or int (or a " "sequence of these types).") caused = [self.names[c] if type(c) == int else c for c in caused] caused_ind = [util.get_index(self.names, c) for c in caused] if causing is not None: if isinstance(causing, allowed_types): causing = [causing] if not all(isinstance(c, allowed_types) for c in causing): raise TypeError("causing has to be of type string or int (or " "a sequence of these types) or None.") causing = [self.names[c] if type(c) == int else c for c in causing] causing_ind = [util.get_index(self.names, c) for c in causing] if causing is None: causing_ind = [i for i in range(self.neqs) if i not in caused_ind] causing = [self.names[c] for c in caused_ind] k, p = self.neqs, self.k_ar if p == 0: err = "Cannot test Granger Causality in a model with 0 lags." raise RuntimeError(err) # number of restrictions num_restr = len(causing) * len(caused) * p num_det_terms = self.k_exog # Make restriction matrix C = np.zeros((num_restr, k * num_det_terms + k**2 * p), dtype=float) cols_det = k * num_det_terms row = 0 for j in range(p): for ing_ind in causing_ind: for ed_ind in caused_ind: C[row, cols_det + ed_ind + k * ing_ind + k**2 * j] = 1 row += 1 # Lütkepohl 3.6.5 Cb =, vec(self.params.T)) middle = np.linalg.inv(C @ self.cov_params() @ C.T) # wald statistic lam_wald = statistic = Cb @ middle @ Cb if kind.lower() == 'wald': df = num_restr dist = stats.chi2(df) elif kind.lower() == 'f': statistic = lam_wald / num_restr df = (num_restr, k * self.df_resid) dist = stats.f(*df) else: raise ValueError('kind %s not recognized' % kind) pvalue = dist.sf(statistic) crit_value = dist.ppf(1 - signif) return CausalityTestResults(causing, caused, statistic, crit_value, pvalue, df, signif, test="granger", method=kind)
[docs] def test_inst_causality(self, causing, signif=0.05): """ Test for instantaneous causality Parameters ---------- causing : If int or str, test whether the corresponding variable is causing the variable(s) specified in caused. If sequence of int or str, test whether the corresponding variables are causing the variable(s) specified in caused. signif : float between 0 and 1, default 5 % Significance level for computing critical values for test, defaulting to standard 0.05 level verbose : bool If True, print a table with the results. Returns ------- results : dict A dict holding the test's results. The dict's keys are: "statistic" : float The calculated test statistic. "crit_value" : float The critical value of the Chi^2-distribution. "pvalue" : float The p-value corresponding to the test statistic. "df" : float The degrees of freedom of the Chi^2-distribution. "conclusion" : str {"reject", "fail to reject"} Whether H0 can be rejected or not. "signif" : float Significance level Notes ----- Test for instantaneous causality as described in chapters 3.6.3 and 7.6.4 of [1]_. Test H0: "No instantaneous causality between caused and causing" against H1: "Instantaneous causality between caused and causing exists". Instantaneous causality is a symmetric relation (i.e. if causing is "instantaneously causing" caused, then also caused is "instantaneously causing" causing), thus the naming of the parameters (which is chosen to be in accordance with test_granger_causality()) may be misleading. This method is not returning the same result as JMulTi. This is because the test is based on a VAR(k_ar) model in statsmodels (in accordance to pp. 104, 320-321 in [1]_) whereas JMulTi seems to be using a VAR(k_ar+1) model. References ---------- .. [1] Lütkepohl, H. 2005. *New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis*. Springer. """ if not (0 < signif < 1): raise ValueError("signif has to be between 0 and 1") allowed_types = (str, int) if isinstance(causing, allowed_types): causing = [causing] if not all(isinstance(c, allowed_types) for c in causing): raise TypeError("causing has to be of type string or int (or a " + "a sequence of these types).") causing = [self.names[c] if type(c) == int else c for c in causing] causing_ind = [util.get_index(self.names, c) for c in causing] caused_ind = [i for i in range(self.neqs) if i not in causing_ind] caused = [self.names[c] for c in caused_ind] # Note: JMulTi seems to be using k_ar+1 instead of k_ar k, t, p = self.neqs, self.nobs, self.k_ar num_restr = len(causing) * len(caused) # called N in Lütkepohl sigma_u = self.sigma_u vech_sigma_u = util.vech(sigma_u) sig_mask = np.zeros(sigma_u.shape) # set =1 twice to ensure, that all the ones needed are below the main # diagonal: sig_mask[causing_ind, caused_ind] = 1 sig_mask[caused_ind, causing_ind] = 1 vech_sig_mask = util.vech(sig_mask) inds = np.nonzero(vech_sig_mask)[0] # Make restriction matrix C = np.zeros((num_restr, len(vech_sigma_u)), dtype=float) for row in range(num_restr): C[row, inds[row]] = 1 Cs =, vech_sigma_u) d = np.linalg.pinv(duplication_matrix(k)) Cd =, d) middle = np.linalg.inv(Cd @ np.kron(sigma_u, sigma_u) @ Cd.T) / 2 wald_statistic = t * (Cs.T @ middle @ Cs) df = num_restr dist = stats.chi2(df) pvalue = dist.sf(wald_statistic) crit_value = dist.ppf(1 - signif) return CausalityTestResults(causing, caused, wald_statistic, crit_value, pvalue, df, signif, test="inst", method="wald")
[docs] def test_whiteness(self, nlags=10, signif=0.05, adjusted=False): """ Residual whiteness tests using Portmanteau test Parameters ---------- nlags : int > 0 The number of lags tested must be larger than the number of lags included in the VAR model. signif : float, between 0 and 1 The significance level of the test. adjusted : bool, default False Flag indicating to apply small-sample adjustments. Returns ------- WhitenessTestResults The test results. Notes ----- Test the whiteness of the residuals using the Portmanteau test as described in [1]_, chapter 4.4.3. References ---------- .. [1] Lütkepohl, H. 2005. *New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis*. Springer. """ if nlags - self.k_ar <= 0: raise ValueError("The whiteness test can only be used when nlags " "is larger than the number of lags included in " f"the model ({self.k_ar}).") statistic = 0 u = np.asarray(self.resid) acov_list = _compute_acov(u, nlags) cov0_inv = np.linalg.inv(acov_list[0]) for t in range(1, nlags+1): ct = acov_list[t] to_add = np.trace(ct.T @ cov0_inv @ ct @ cov0_inv) if adjusted: to_add /= (self.nobs - t) statistic += to_add statistic *= self.nobs**2 if adjusted else self.nobs df = self.neqs**2 * (nlags - self.k_ar) dist = stats.chi2(df) pvalue = dist.sf(statistic) crit_value = dist.ppf(1 - signif) return WhitenessTestResults(statistic, crit_value, pvalue, df, signif, nlags, adjusted)
[docs] def plot_acorr(self, nlags=10, resid=True, linewidth=8): r""" Plot autocorrelation of sample (endog) or residuals Sample (Y) or Residual autocorrelations are plotted together with the standard :math:`2 / \sqrt{T}` bounds. Parameters ---------- nlags : int number of lags to display (excluding 0) resid : bool If True, then the autocorrelation of the residuals is plotted If False, then the autocorrelation of endog is plotted. linewidth : int width of vertical bars Returns ------- Figure Figure instance containing the plot. """ if resid: acorrs = self.resid_acorr(nlags) else: acorrs = self.sample_acorr(nlags) bound = 2 / np.sqrt(self.nobs) fig = plotting.plot_full_acorr(acorrs[1:], xlabel=np.arange(1, nlags+1), err_bound=bound, linewidth=linewidth) fig.suptitle(r"ACF plots for residuals with $2 / \sqrt{T}$ bounds ") return fig
[docs] def test_normality(self, signif=0.05): """ Test assumption of normal-distributed errors using Jarque-Bera-style omnibus Chi^2 test. Parameters ---------- signif : float Test significance level. Returns ------- result : NormalityTestResults Notes ----- H0 (null) : data are generated by a Gaussian-distributed process """ return test_normality(self, signif=signif)
@cache_readonly def detomega(self): r""" Return determinant of white noise covariance with degrees of freedom correction: .. math:: \hat \Omega = \frac{T}{T - Kp - 1} \hat \Omega_{\mathrm{MLE}} """ return np.linalg.det(self.sigma_u) @cache_readonly def info_criteria(self): "information criteria for lagorder selection" nobs = self.nobs neqs = self.neqs lag_order = self.k_ar free_params = lag_order * neqs ** 2 + neqs * self.k_exog ld = logdet_symm(self.sigma_u_mle) # See Lütkepohl pp. 146-150 aic = ld + (2. / nobs) * free_params bic = ld + (np.log(nobs) / nobs) * free_params hqic = ld + (2. * np.log(np.log(nobs)) / nobs) * free_params fpe = ((nobs + self.df_model) / self.df_resid) ** neqs * np.exp(ld) return { 'aic': aic, 'bic': bic, 'hqic': hqic, 'fpe': fpe } @property def aic(self): """Akaike information criterion""" return self.info_criteria['aic'] @property def fpe(self): """Final Prediction Error (FPE) Lütkepohl p. 147, see info_criteria """ return self.info_criteria['fpe'] @property def hqic(self): """Hannan-Quinn criterion""" return self.info_criteria['hqic'] @property def bic(self): """Bayesian a.k.a. Schwarz info criterion""" return self.info_criteria['bic'] @cache_readonly def roots(self): """ The roots of the VAR process are the solution to (I - coefs[0]*z - coefs[1]*z**2 ... - coefs[p-1]*z**k_ar) = 0. Note that the inverse roots are returned, and stability requires that the roots lie outside the unit circle. """ neqs = self.neqs k_ar = self.k_ar p = neqs * k_ar arr = np.zeros((p, p)) arr[:neqs, :] = np.column_stack(self.coefs) arr[neqs:, :-neqs] = np.eye(p-neqs) roots = np.linalg.eig(arr)[0]**-1 idx = np.argsort(np.abs(roots))[::-1] # sort by reverse modulus return roots[idx]
class VARResultsWrapper(wrap.ResultsWrapper): _attrs = {'bse': 'columns_eq', 'cov_params': 'cov', 'params': 'columns_eq', 'pvalues': 'columns_eq', 'tvalues': 'columns_eq', 'sigma_u': 'cov_eq', 'sigma_u_mle': 'cov_eq', 'stderr': 'columns_eq'} _wrap_attrs = wrap.union_dicts(TimeSeriesResultsWrapper._wrap_attrs, _attrs) _methods = {'conf_int': 'multivariate_confint'} _wrap_methods = wrap.union_dicts(TimeSeriesResultsWrapper._wrap_methods, _methods) wrap.populate_wrapper(VARResultsWrapper, VARResults) # noqa:E305
[docs]class FEVD(object): """ Compute and plot Forecast error variance decomposition and asymptotic standard errors """ def __init__(self, model, P=None, periods=None): self.periods = periods self.model = model self.neqs = model.neqs self.names = model.model.endog_names self.irfobj = model.irf(var_decomp=P, periods=periods) self.orth_irfs = self.irfobj.orth_irfs # cumulative impulse responses irfs = (self.orth_irfs[:periods] ** 2).cumsum(axis=0) rng = lrange(self.neqs) mse = self.model.mse(periods)[:, rng, rng] # lag x equation x component fevd = np.empty_like(irfs) for i in range(periods): fevd[i] = (irfs[i].T / mse[i]).T # switch to equation x lag x component self.decomp = fevd.swapaxes(0, 1)
[docs] def summary(self): buf = StringIO() rng = lrange(self.periods) for i in range(self.neqs): ppm = output.pprint_matrix(self.decomp[i], rng, self.names) buf.write('FEVD for %s\n' % self.names[i]) buf.write(ppm + '\n') print(buf.getvalue())
[docs] def cov(self): """Compute asymptotic standard errors Returns ------- """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def plot(self, periods=None, figsize=(10, 10), **plot_kwds): """Plot graphical display of FEVD Parameters ---------- periods : int, default None Defaults to number originally specified. Can be at most that number """ import matplotlib.pyplot as plt k = self.neqs periods = periods or self.periods fig, axes = plt.subplots(nrows=k, figsize=figsize) fig.suptitle('Forecast error variance decomposition (FEVD)') colors = [str(c) for c in np.arange(k, dtype=float) / k] ticks = np.arange(periods) limits = self.decomp.cumsum(2) for i in range(k): ax = axes[i] this_limits = limits[i].T handles = [] for j in range(k): lower = this_limits[j - 1] if j > 0 else 0 upper = this_limits[j] handle =, upper - lower, bottom=lower, color=colors[j], label=self.names[j], **plot_kwds) handles.append(handle) ax.set_title(self.names[i]) # just use the last axis to get handles for plotting handles, labels = ax.get_legend_handles_labels() fig.legend(handles, labels, loc='upper right') plotting.adjust_subplots(right=0.85) return fig
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- def _compute_acov(x, nlags=1): x = x - x.mean(0) result = [] for lag in range(nlags + 1): if lag > 0: r =[lag:].T, x[:-lag]) else: r =, x) result.append(r) return np.array(result) / len(x) def _acovs_to_acorrs(acovs): sd = np.sqrt(np.diag(acovs[0])) return acovs / np.outer(sd, sd) if __name__ == '__main__': import as data_util from statsmodels.tsa.vector_ar.util import parse_lutkepohl_data np.set_printoptions(linewidth=140, precision=5) sdata, dates = parse_lutkepohl_data('data/%s.dat' % 'e1') names = sdata.dtype.names data = data_util.struct_to_ndarray(sdata) adj_data = np.diff(np.log(data), axis=0) # est = VAR(adj_data, p=2, dates=dates[1:], names=names) model = VAR(adj_data[:-16], dates=dates[1:-16], names=names) # model = VAR(adj_data[:-16], dates=dates[1:-16], names=names) est = irf = est.irf() y = est.endog[-2:] """ # irf.plot_irf() # i = 2; j = 1 # cv = irf.cum_effect_cov(orth=True) # print np.sqrt(cv[:, j * 3 + i, j * 3 + i]) / 1e-2 # data = np.genfromtxt('Canada.csv', delimiter=',', names=True) # data = data.view((float, 4)) """ ''' mdata = sm.datasets.macrodata.load(as_pandas=False).data mdata2 = mdata[['realgdp','realcons','realinv']] names = mdata2.dtype.names data = mdata2.view((float,3)) data = np.diff(np.log(data), axis=0) import pandas as pn df = pn.DataFrame.fromRecords(mdata) df = np.log(df.reindex(columns=names)) df = (df - df.shift(1)).dropna() model = VAR(df) est = irf = est.irf() '''